Introduction | Scherzer Diary | Narrative | Sydney | Selleny | Bibliography | Novara Expedition | Hochstetter I
Blanche Mitchell Diary | Minnie Mann Diary | Hochstetter II | FitzRoy Dock | Scherzer in Sydney | Frauenfeld Diary

Notes, collected during my stay in New Holland, New Zealand and on Tahiti

upon the voyage of His Majesty's frigate Novara in their waters.

by G. Frauenfeld

(Delivered at the sitting of the Mathematical-Scientific Section of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, Vienna, on 13 October 1859)


Georg Frauenfeld was one of the leading scientists on board the Austrian frigate Novara during its round-the-world voyage of 1857-9. He had responsibility for zoology and the collection of natural history specimens, and was ably assisted in this task by Johannes Zelebor (whose duties included the preservation of zoological specimens), Eduard Schwarz (botanist and ship's doctor), and Anton Jellinek (botanist and gardener).

Both throughout the voyage and following his return to Vienna in August 1859, Frauenfeld reported his findings at length to the Vienna Academy of Sciences and the Zoological-Botanical Society, publishing material within the journals of the two institutes, and also as part of the official accounts of the Novara expedition which appeared between 1861-77. Apart from individual zoological specimens figured and described in the Reise volumes, Frauenfeld issued two articles of direct relevance to Australia: one was an entomological note dealing with 'Eggs in an Australian Fern', said specimen having been collected by Anton Jellinek in the forest about Wollongong; whilst the other contained a detailed account of Frauenfeld's explorations to the north, south and within the environs of Sydney during his visit there in November - December 1858. The latter was delivered to the Vienna Academy of Sciences on 13 October 1859 and published within its journal the following year. The article was obviously based upon Frauenfeld's original diary notes, and possessed an immediacy unlike the average scientific report. It is a mixture of both travelogue and scientific observation, displaying Frauenfeld's skills as a writer and natural historian.

The following English translation is taken from that article, originally published as 'Notizen, gesammelt während meines Aufenthaltes auf Neuholland, Neuseeland und Tahiti, bei der Fahrt Sr. Majestät Fregatte Novara in jenen Gewässern', and published in the Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Wien, 1860, pp.717-732).1 The translation is by Professor G.L. McMullen of the Australian Catholic University, Ballarat, and was undertaken during December 1997 - January 1998. Editorial additions and notes have been supplied by Michael Organ. Only the Australian section of the article has been reproduced, omitting those latter parts dealing with New Zealand and Tahiti.

In commenting on this report, the late historian J.E. Fletcher noted: '[Frauenfeld's] essay on the Sydney visit reads somewhat like a Latin textbook, as he delightedly identifies in turn everything growing and moving in the environs of Sydney' (Fletcher, 1985). As a result, a list of the many flora and fauna noted by Frauenfeld in the text has been compiled by the editor and is included as an appendix.

A number of sections of the article, including that which describes Frauenfeld's excursion to A.W. Scott's property at Ash Island on the Hunter River, and the subsequent climbing of the nearby Sugarloaf Mountain, was used by Novara historiographer Karl Scherzer in his compilation of the official descriptive account of the voyage (Reise, III, 43-6) published in Vienna during 1861-2.

Following the expedition's arrival at its home port of Trieste on 26 August 1859, Frauenfeld returned to Vienna and went on to pursue a distinguished career as an Austrian entomologist and zoologist. He was heavily involved in the development of the Vienna Natural History Museum, and published numerous articles up to the time of his death in 1873.

The Australian 'Notes' of 1859 which are reproduced below form an important addition to the Novara record. Whilst they may be deficient in terms of providing precise dates, or descriptions of people met with and associated social activities (a deficiency addressed by other sources), they are nevertheless of significance due to their scientific detail, reflecting the energy, knowledge, and observational skills of the 51 year old scientist Georg Frauenfeld.

Notes, collected during my stay in New Holland.......[November 1858]


Georg Frauenfeld

A grey, overcast sky had already kept the sun from us for several days; a strong wind threatened to turn to a storm, however, after almost 3 months under sail from China,2 the Novara steered confidently towards the entrance of Port Jackson, on the shores of which rise the cathedrals of the last part of the world to become known to Europeans. It was also the last continent which, on our trip, we had to see and step foot on for the first time. Thus it was with great apprehension that we saw, at midday on 5 November 1858, the dim outline of the land appear from the cloudy atmosphere, and our calculated course was so exact that we had the entrance of the harbour directly in front of us. The sight of the shrouded coast was not promising - a low, bare, uniform line, whose high, vertical, broken shore of eroded sandstone stared back at us inhospitably. With the cutting, but favourable wind, we had quickly passed the threateningly towering North and South Heads, a shaking finger showing the spot where some months earlier the unfortunate Dunbar was smashed on the wave-whipped cliffs with all its passengers devoured by the dreadful depths.3 But behind this uncanny exterior, in the calm waters of this attractive harbour a completely altered picture presented itself. Upon navigation onwards, a row of bays - on the protruding peninsulas of which lies, in part, the town, in part, lovely country houses separated by luxuriantly green gardens - enfolded themselves like a stage with a continual change of scenery.

The town itself has a completely European appearance. Provided with much luxury and far more than the bare essentials, it has rather to provide for the satisfaction of life's greatest comforts and finest pleasures. Were it not for the completely dainty Norfolk Pine, with its totally strange, foreign look, one could believe one was entering a southern European harbour.

While on the open sea outside of the entrance, birds in great numbers swarmed around us, [yet] little life prevailed in the harbour itself. A Brahming Kite and another beautiful Kite (Milvus affinis) circled over the ship, however only individuals; also a Gull and a Sea Swallow, of which, likewise, only one occasionally flew speedily by. They may be more numerous there in other seasons, since they were perhaps in the nesting places during our visit, and 4 weeks later, upon our departure [on Tuesday, 7 December], the seagulls were assembled in companies of 20-30 on the cliffs, including many in juvenile plumage.

The town itself is enlivened by a Swallow (Hirundo neoxena); for the absence here of the Sparrow there is a substitute in certain measure in Estrelda temporalis, which lives in flocks in the intervening gardens. The big green Cicada, which is found everywhere in large numbers, even on trees standing alone in the town, makes a truly ear-splitting screeching. As in most areas of the world, one or other butterfly predominates, so here it was Hipparchia Merope, which flew around everywhere.

I used the first hours immediately after I stepped ashore to visit Dr. [George] Bennett4 and the [Australian] Museum. 5 At the former I saw a young pair of the recently discovered Morok (Casuarius Bennetti) from New Britain, which he was just ready to dispatch to England for the zoological gardens. I was particularly struck by the difference in the beak form which for the males was quite bent [and] for the females almost straight - a quite unusual example in the case of birds. 6

In the Museum I met the Secretary, Mr. [George] French Angas, 7 who has in his possession splendid drawings of bare? Sea Molluscs which like the collection of Dr Kelaarts in Colombo exhibits a number of new subjects. 8 He keeps three beautiful aquaria in which I saw living examples of many of the same.

The Museum is rich in skulls and fossil remains. Apart from that, the collection of shells and that of birds are worth mentioning. I very much regret I almost totally neglected the so excellent and strange fauna of New Holland, and the little available was scattered under the rest and lost to sight. It is an experience that I have had all over the world that local objects are sacrificed for foreigners' mania, and this from men for whom the great value of the total picture of the fauna of a land cannot be unknown. I do not think that I can call attention urgently enough to each museum dedicating a special department to its native fauna. Not only that the scientific traveller may draw the greatest understanding therefrom, but also that the inhabitants of a land may be helped to the clearest knowledge of the same.

An all-day excursion to the North Shore opposite Sydney - the connection being a small steamer - as well to Manly beach, which is situated opposite the coast, allowed me an impression of the character of the vegetation of the area. The 3-5 foot high stretches of bush of the flat, often swampy low lands near the coast interested me more than the slender, shadeless eucalyptus forests. The whorl-flowered/blooded? Metrosideros with their long, radial, red pollen fibres alternating with Melaleucas, whose branches were dotted with white flowers, covered whole stretches of great expanse. Thousands of the 10-12 foot high, straight, mace-like stalks of flowers of Xantorrhoea rose upwards scattered between them, around which swarmed honey-sucking birds (Acanthorhynchus etc.), which sipped the sweet, fragrant nectar hoveringly. A crowd of little birds: Warblers, Smicrornis, the magnificent blue Malurus cyaneus, Stipiturus malachurus with their characteristic, finely radial tail feathers slipped through the low bushes and rushes, and came impudently and fearlessly so close that I caught one with a butterfly net. A flock of Swifts (Acanthyllis?) flew high in the air as if on a ramble. I did not see this bird again during the whole stay. In the case of Swallows only Hirundo ariel, whose odd bottle-shaped sociable nests I found beneath the rooves of individual farms in several locations.

Quite often there lived on the little more than a foot high Melaleuca bushes near the coast the snail-shaped, spiral shells of a Tineide, almost twice as large as the sac of Psyche helix S., which the butterfly later furnished me with on the ship.

Because we had received orders to return to the ship after 14 days, 9 I decided to use the steamer to undertake an excursion to the north as well as the south. Mr. Alex. Walker Scott, 10 a keen entomologist, had kindly invited me to his property, Ash Island, in the Hunter River to which the Maitland steamer departed from Sydney on 9 November at 11 o'clock. 11 The next morning we steered into the mouth of this river at 6 o'clock. Within this entrance lies Newcastle, which as far as the important fossil fuel [coal] is concerned, appears to be the fortunate rival in the Antipodes of its namesake. From there after an hour's trip upstream we reached Hexham, the first post station on the Hunter, where the railway constructed from Newcastle to Maitland also passes by. I left the steamer there and sailed by boat to the island opposite, the destination of my journey.

The landscape of the river is unattractive. On the cleared banks, whose woodland remnants of dead eucalypts stand scattered ghostlike on the flat fields planted with crops, one catches sight, here and there, of the poor wooden huts of the settlers, whose cattle graze all around in the fenced paddocks. Sterna melanorhyncha, as well as Pacific Gulls (Larus pacificus) skim up and down over the river fishing. The great New Holland Eagle (Aquila fucosa), moves along the banks high in the air, while countless Cormorants sit fearlessly on the bleached, white branches of the dead trees. Here and there on the sand banks a pair of the readily recognisable Long-beaked Oyster Catchers was busy. I was not able to distinguish the busy, cheeping Strand Plover running about between them.

The attractive island [Ash Island], on which Mr. W. Scott's idyllic home is located, diffuses far and wide an exquisite fragrance from the abundance of perfumed flowers in the well-kept garden and extensive orange grove. Not only the kindness of the whole family of the owner, who made the stay there unforgettable for me, but also the scientific entomological studies of both daughters12 of the house undertaken with enthusiasm also afforded me great interest; likewise the excellent execution of illustrations of the same merited admiration. For a large number of species they have determined the Lepidopteran fauna of New South Wales completely through all states of metamorphosis, often from the egg onwards, and their experiences of a substantial part of the Australian macro- and micro-Lepidopterans are captured and documented in a series of more than 100 folio plates.

The strange genus, Oiketicos, which bores itself a dwelling in the branches of the New Holland Proteaceae and Myrtaceae, the opening of which is surrounded with a thick cocoon like a bag and from where they emerge at night to feed, as well as the case / cocoon-bearing Psychiden and Tineiden, of which New Holland has so many, are represented in great number. Apart from several brought by Sir Thomas Mitchell from the inland, up till now the Cystosoma Saundersii was only found on this island in the Hunter River, but there in great number. On warm, still evenings, a half an hour after sunset, males begin a loud purring song for a quarter of an hour, which sounds duller and deeper and not nearly as cuttingly shrill as for real Cicadas. The creature is far lazier and easy to fasten on to. The back half looks like an empty, wind-filled bubble, which appears to serve as the resonance for the singing organ.

The next day I intended to visit the Sugarloaf, the highest mountain in the area, 3,288 feet high. It was a good ride of almost 40 miles, which I put behind me in a day and for which I set out early from Ash Island, accompanied by two settlers. For half an hour we followed the Hunter River upstream; it then turned right NE, while we went left into the mountains. The forest, perhaps somewhat more cleared than it originally would have been, since extensive traces of fire indicated frequent bushfires, is so sparse that one can ride through almost without hindrance. Even formerly, it could not have been much more dense, since no remains of older, thicker woodlands existed, and in those places where fire and man had not been at work, the forest appeared just as thin and open. Here and there, we came upon huts and cultivated areas; the large landowners lease individuals such tracts or have livestock with their own overseers there. Even in winter the animals can be left to their own devices, where, in the Bush - as the settlers typically call this wooded district - they find the most luxuriant pastures. In summer, when the parching heat dries everything out, they are fed with hay in yards or barns.

The sunny forest consists of the slender-leaved Eucalyptus, of which the Blue Gum tree is the best known, Melaleucas and other Myrtaceae, the dainty-leaved Casuarinas, Grevillias and Banksias, the Native Pear (Xylomelum), the highly valued Waratah (Telopea speciosissima), the similarly shadeless phylloden Acacias, the Native Cherry (Exocarpus) and so on through the softer Sollya, the beautiful Papilionaceae, Oxylobium, Chlorozema, Daviesia, Dillwynia, Swainsonia, Physolobium, Kennedya and the completely odd Stylidien to the lowest scrub. To me they were all old friends, which, at the time of Baron Hügel's journey,13 in decorating the greenhouses of Vienna with their splendour, marked the highpoint of garden cultivation and I greeted them joyfully here in their motherland. I could never get my fill of seeing them, so richly bedecked with flowers, luxuriantly wild and growing all around so abundantly that the horses' hooves crushed that which I was used to regarding as a treasure, and which I myself bent back in order to get at another plant or insect underneath. The foreignness of perfect Cycas macrozamia, which stand in groups in cleared areas, in between the most dainty Grass-trees (Xantorrhoea arborea), with their dark brown-black, foot-thick trunks and often 9-10 feet height, with a similarly high sprays of flowers. Here and there one finds the splendid Gigantic Lily (Doryanthes excelsa), of which I only saw one more in flower.

Countless birds, especially parrots drifted around the crowns of the trees screaming, the crane-like Strepera graculina, the white and black Gymnorhina tibicea, the bald-headed Leatherhead, Tropidohynchus corniculatus, the Common Soldier Bird, which is highly valued by all settlers for consuming poisonous snakes, and the carefully protected Laughing Jackass, Dacelo gigantea, countless Finches, the fantailed Muscicapiden, the Climacteris, which climbs up and down trees like our creepers, the 4-5 feet long Monitore, which quickly fled, here and there, to the trees, a prickly lizard, and a beautiful slug guaranteed plenty of diversion.

After we reached the mountain crest, we rode along there three hours in a wide circle and, just as the sun was going down, we reached a steep rock wall, where we left the horses behind and climbed further on foot. After a further half an hour's hike, we were at another rock pile of crude, crumbly sandstone, the actual Sugarloaf, which was very eroded and between the crevices of which we laboriously wound our way upwards and thereby reached the peak at 6 o'clock. A splendid view presented itself to us; at our feet the County of Northumberland stretched around us in the evening light decorated with green forest. Left, in the far distance lay the capital, Maitland, from where the navigable Hunter wound like a silver ribbon luxuriantly through the countryside right down to distant Newcastle, where it wed the sea, whose wild foam sparkled on the distant horizon and on whose waves the ships appeared as just dazzling, white dots on a trembling background. On the right, Lake Macquarie lay stretched out shorelessly, at high tide thickly shrouded all around with forest. My companions described the same as also very poorly accessible, however as a true paradise for hunters since it contained hundreds of black swans, the Australian Stork, Numenius, Sickle Bills, Cormorants and countless other swamp and water birds. The Blue Mountain chain completed the background. The area is fairly well populated and cultivated; numerous columns of smoke showed the spots where the huts of the settlers lay hidden in the woods. My companions were also delighted by this splendid panorama; they had never ascended the peak, although the older of the two, who had been here 15 years, had often come as far as the first wall in search of stray cattle.

We could only delay a short time and hurried down to our horses to set out on the return journey. We still did not have half the mountain crest behind us as night broke so clear, so calm and mild as ordinarily only arises in the tropics. The moon rose and poured its silver light down on the pale foliage of the eucalyptus and banksias so that their light-coloured, thin trunks appeared like ghostly figures in the magical illumination. The deep silence was only interrupted occasionally by the piercing cry of a Curlew from the nearby swamp or from the rustling of a Wallaby (Halmaturus walabatus), fleeing on our approach. The giant Kangaroo (Macropus major), together with the natives, has long since withdrawn from civilisation, hundreds of miles deep into the interior. Moved by overwhelming feelings, I was often pleased to let my horse go slowly on the grassy ground. It appeared to me almost like a dream, that I rode here on these plains, where just a short time ago the moonlight illuminated a savage with his spear, creeping up on a shy Kangaroo or an Emu. About midnight we arrived at Ash Island again, from where I returned by steamer next morning to Sydney.

In order to undertake the second part immediately, I utilised the steamer which travels southwards as far as Shoalhaven.14 Since, however, I could only spend five days about it, I decided to go only as far as Kiama, 88 miles distant from Sydney and from there to return by land via Appin and Campbeltown.15 The first place where the steamer stopped, Wollongong, even more, however, Kiama itself, where we arrived about 1.30 am, have little protection, so that, by bad weather, disembarkation is impossible, and since we had very rough seas, this was really very tedious. Thus, at first the captain was unwilling to land, however the female passengers were all so sea-sick that he finally agreed to bring them on land.16 I had, however, through the wild sea, the advantage of finding the Blowhole at its best. On the high southern cliff projection near Kiama, a crater-like hollow, in which one can descend quite close to a 50-foot deep, on average 1-2 fathoms in diameter chimney, is located a little over 1,000 paces from the landing. Below, one sees the blue-black torrent menacingly frothing up and receding, in the same rhythm as the waves rushing from the sea, the compressed water boiling hissingly in a jet of 100 or more feet like a geyser spurting upwards and going down again vertically in the throat; however, the spectacle does not always stay so good-natured. Most likely, according to the proportion of air trapped in the entrance of the channel by the sea and the resulting pressure from the mass of water upon it, this impels the column of water with wild roaring into hundreds of jets, which fall down fountain-like in curves, however, often, as I myself experienced, so strongly with a thundering noise and such violence, that the spurting spray strikes the rocks again with force. Woe betide the unwary one, who, standing on the narrow rim, makes an incautious movement; should he slip, he would be hopelessly lost. By calmer seas, the whole spectacle dies, due simply to mechanical reasons.

Kiama is still a very young settlement, the isolated huts of which are scattered over the ascending terrain, built according to the whim and choice of their owner. Upon the arrival of the steamer, the settlers from the area ride in to conduct business, whereby the females also come bursting out of the bush on horseback. I only visited the beach there to collect, since this day I still wished to reach Dapto, 16 miles distant. It is in this, the most luxuriant part of the fertile Illawarra District, where I intended to spend a day. The way led over hilly country, alternatively through forests and cultivated sections with young settlers, who all had a blooming appearance. Unfortunately, the evening was rainy, so that the planned lying-in-wait for possums could not take place. The next day was also dull, however I went with the son of a farmer, Mr Kidd,17 to the Illawarra Mountains. The vegetation there is much more luxuriant, clearing and cultivation more tedious than in Sydney. Here the axe has to force a way through and fire can only conquer the land for cultivation step by step. Only cattle breeding takes place and butter is just about the only product of the valley; field produce is only grown for household needs. Near the huts are our green vegetables; the freshly cleared spaces are cultivated with our root crops, and since one comes across a vast number of European weeds in the fields and around their edges, a hike takes on a familiar appearance, until the foreign shapes of the forest abolish the deception. The leeches in this forest were an experience, up till this time unknown to me in Australia. Resembling the notorious spring leeches of Ceylon but less agile, they bother the hiker quite severely, in that they crawl around in moist, musty places on branches and tree trunks and quickly assault anyone who sits down there. Since the weather was getting worse, any possibilities for this evening, when it really started to rain, were annihilated.

The next morning I took advantage of the mail coach to Wollongong for the continuation of the journey. The well-maintained road passed through open country, here and there interspersed with little acacia forests, which were just in bloom and spread a glorious fragrance in the air. Away over the low hills the sea stretched out with glitteringly sparkling white waves showing that it still had not calmed down. Since the distance was only half of the way from Kiama to Dapto, I was already in Wollongong at 9.30 am. The hills, a continuation of the Illawarra chain extending here along the coast, were richly wooded, as in Dapto. In some places giant trunks of Eucalyptus robusta 30 to 40 feet in circumference entangled with lianas, draped artistically with parasites and mixed with glorious tree ferns reminded me of tropical luxuriance.

I collected here, as in all the other places in New Holland on which I set foot, a large number of outgrowths, so that I would have to say that, in comparison, New South Wales is richer in these natural products than Rio Janeiro. Although in relation to form, no unusual deviation is demonstrated, many are, however, very dainty and curious, and although I had little success with breeding, even amongst these there are several special phenomena. The Casuarinas furnish the richest and most varied forms of galls,18 from which I drew a gall fly. Next came the Acacias, which bear large spheres of gall like our oaks; as to their origin, like at the Cape, gall flies probably make the majority here as well. Wollongong, likewise of a young age, but far more attractive than Kiama, is a place where the numerous buildings line wide, sealed streets. Cattle breeding also provides the main commercial product.

The next morning I used the mail coach again, in order to get to Campbeltown via Appin. From Wollongong, the road ascends directly into the mountains, and on their wide tracks goes on unbroken for almost two hours over low bushy steppe consisting of the plants already mentioned from the Australian flora interspersed with forests. The Coachman and the Bellbird frequently let forth the strange calls which give them their names. Here and there flocks of parrots pass screaming over the tree tops, while, not infrequently, on both sides of the road pigeons rose from the ground where they were feeding.

After the romantic rocky gorge, Mitchell Pass,19 not far from Appin, the vista opens up in that the mountains sink gently into the valley of the Parramatta, which separates the Blue Mountains from the Cumberland Plain,20 which could be just seen on the horizon in the distant northeast. Richly cultivated lands covered the hills, waving cornfields took the place of moors, and, arriving in Campbeltown, one finds a flourishing township, the appearance of which heralds industry and thriving trade. By train, one quickly completes the 32 mile long trip back to Sydney, where I arrived at 7 pm.

My next excursion was to Botany Bay, a famous bay, from which Cook on his first circumnavigation of the world with Banks and Solander stepped ashore in New Holland for the first time. The Bay is large, not very deep, with an unimportant hinterland, into the northern corner of which the Cook River flows. On a rocky cliff on the south side of the entrance, Point Solander, a stone is set into the rocks to commemorate the day and the spot of their landing. It was an indescribable feeling to stand on the spot, where, years earlier, those men whose names will be known in the world as long as science lives, first placed their feet, at a time when the means of navigation were so imperfect, that the privations, trials and dangers of such a voyage in unknown waters must have increased extraordinarily. How amazed Banks must have been as he found each plant new and divergent from those seen up till then, along with the strange and mythically-fashioned animals. The botanical treasures collected there also occasioned Cook to give the Bay its name. On the opposite (north) side on Cape Banks, Bougainville erected a simple obelisk in memory of Laperouse on the spot marking the last traces of his presence before his unfortunate end was discovered. A tree trunk marked the spot where Laperouse prepared a grave for one of the members of the expedition, in the foreign earth that soon after also enclosed him and all his men in its damp depths.21 The inscription on the tree was:










The trunk was removed and brought to France, the burial place covered with a stone slab bearing the same inscription.

The owner of the guesthouse in Botany Bay keeps a truly significant menagerie. In a closed room, which can be visited for an admission fee, were a Lioness, a Tiger, a Leopard, a Cheetah, a Grizzly Bear, an Indian and a Snouted Bear, and an Elephant. The keeper was quite amazed that I gave these animals so little attention and occupied myself almost exclusively with the remaining native animals, which were kept outside. There were five magnificent Emus. I fed them with bread from my hand, which they took off one another, and thereafter, with their legs forwards, let fly at each another. Two large Aquila fucosa, three very tame Kangaroos and countless Halmaturus walabatus and one Macropus Benetti?, one smaller Hypsiprimnus sp., a Native Cat, one Siberian and two Native Dogs, one of them black, the other brown. They were both chained on a back lawn, where they had scratched out a hollow in the earth, however were so tame that they jumped up on visitors joyfully. It is a descendant of a breed of sheep dog, to which I would not really like to ascribe the origin. According to the information received, the Native Dog, although predominantly red-brown, occurs in all possible colours - even spotted. The length of its hair also varies. Furthermore, there was a large, stately white falcon with black coat and wings, a little white peregrine, a pair of pheasants from India, and a whole colony of American Cavia cobaya. In a Voliere there were several smaller birds, including a Dacelo gigantea, and a pale variation of Corvus coronoides was particularly conspicuous. It was a light cream colour, its beak and feet pale skin-tone, the iris white, the pupil, however, black, so that I would not designate it albino.

In one section supplied with water, there were three Marsh Deers, of which the male was just putting forth new antlers. Nearby were the beautiful Native Companion (Grus australasicus), several black and white Swans, the Australian Pelecanus conspicillatus, many ducks like Carsarca tadornoides, Tadorna radjah, Anas superciliosa and little Anas punctata, Spatula rhynchotis and the New Holland Goose. Under a covered protrusion on the house in portable cages was an excellent collection of the numerous families of parrots found in New Holland representing at least 15 different sorts. The dwarf Trichoglossus, the colourful Emphemen, the gentle Nymphicus, the rose-coloured Eos, the beautiful Plyctolophus Leadbeateri, various cockatoos and large black parrots were assembled here, also pigeons like the magnificent Wangawanga, the bronze-winged Phaps chalcoptera, the dainty Geophaps scripta, several rails and many of the highly-coloured New Holland finches. It was one of the best live collections of animals which I had seen, more extensive than the birds in the Governor's garden in Sydney, amongst which I must especially mention the large, wingless New Zealand Rail and the Crowned Pigeon from New Guinea. Particularly the latter is a fine sight.

Apart from the men engaged in science already mentioned, in Sydney there is also Mr W.S. Macleay,22 one of the veterans of entomology, and Dr Alfred Roberts.23 At the latter's place, I saw many fine preparations of microscopic animals and of cross-sections of the teeth of poisonous snakes, which he has examined particularly thoroughly in relation to the construction of the venom duct. He had beautiful specimens of the fungal parasite named after him Sphaeria Robertsii, in particular, one whereby the fungus comes not from the head as is customary but from the hindquarters, the one and only of this sort amongst all which I saw.

I am trying to keep alive a pair of amphibians, which I received from him. An Echidna, which he sent to me live through Dr Scherzer, died in my hands. I regret that at Mr Macleay's, time did not permit me to study all his collection. He has sketches and animals covering almost all sections of natural history, in particular treasure troves of insects, including the models for his numerous papers. Particularly interesting for me were the parasitic flies. At his place I saw Strebla (a), which he collected in Cuba, furthermore a fly of this family also originating from Cuba (b,c), which forms a bridge between Raymondia and Nycteribia, where until now there was a significant gap, as well as a second interface, a real Nycteribia with totally developed wings. The first of these new flies (b,c) is similar to Raymondia Huberi in size and colour, only different to all other flies of this family in its veins.

a Strebla, b from the side, c body of the fly, , drawn from a specimen, d and e from a drawing by Mr Macleay

The thorny front edge and the first longitudinal vein are thickened. A second vein on the very rounded wing tip flows into the indent found there, there being a third in the middle of the back edge. Both of these veins are annexed to a horizontal vein, which originates in the first quarter of the wing in the first thickened vein. Between these three main veins in each of the two panels stretch two fine longitudinal veins or wing folds. The most striking feature is the markedly thickened leg and the splint on the front foot, and a conspicuous thorn on the top of the back leg. The last fly, whose narrow wings remind me somewhat of Stenepteryx, presents a completely different wing construction. I note only that the Ctenidium-like organ, which in the case of nycteribiae is observed on the side, is also present in the case of this fly, not withstanding the wings. In the course of diverse, reciprocal elucidations of individual sections of the collection, of which I particularly mention the spiders, he articulated the following sentences as results of his studies, which do not agree with the hitherto existing suppositions:

  1. Some Nycteribidae have true wings, and even well developed wings.
  2. The structure of spiders generally is more consonant with that of hexapod insects, than is usually supposed.
  3. Some species of true spiders undergo metamorphosis and show that in the most developed state of araneidae they would have a distinct head and the segments of their body less confluent.
  4. There are certain spiders which undergo a scorpionic development.
  5. The parasitic Anoplurae in certain cases possess elytra.

In relation to the spiders, Mr Macleay has documents completely supporting these not unimportant comments, which reveal not only that it becomes more and more difficult to draw sharp diagnostic borders through these sorts of connected anterior limbs, but also, in the case of large classes, the distinctions utilised hitherto lose their exclusiveness more and more through such transitions, and alter their relative status. Mr Macleay has life-sized illustrations of a large part of all the fish of Port Jackson.24 I myself could acquire only a little of this class of the animal kingdom in Sydney. As excellent as the market is for vegetables, fruit, birds, game and other provisions, for which there is a large bazaar, so poor is the fish market. Early in the morning on the beach the buyers wait confidently for the return of the boats in order to obtain the fish right there. I myself appeared there likewise a few times with a basket and after I had waited a few hours, it was said that no boats are coming today and everyone had to leave empty-handed. The few fish of New Holland which I obtained were from a fishing party in North Harbour, to which I was kindly invited by Captain Lovell, and in part also from chance purchases on the side of the road.

I omit the celebrations, which were organised following the glad tidings which reached us in Sydney of the birth of an heir to our beloved Emperor;25 they have doubtless found more eloquent presenters than me. It was without doubt a strange happening, that the jubilation, which resounded in Austrian countries with thousands and thousands of voices, found such resonance in the Antipodes.

I only want to add that I acquired a live native bear, Phascolarctos, which unfortunately, however, perished during my absence on the Kiama excursion following the upsetting of a decanter in my apartment; likewise that an Echidna histrix, which Mr W. Scott sent to me, plunged into the sea on the stormy, first night under canvas from Sydney.

{From this point on the article deals with Frauenfeld's brief visit to New Zealand during late December 1858 - early January 1859}


1. Translation: 'Notes, collected during my stay in New Holland, New Zealand and on Tahiti upon the voyage of His Majesty's frigate Novara in their waters', Reports of Sittings of the Mathematical-Scientific Section of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, Vienna, 1860, 717-732. The Novara had returned to its home port of Trieste on 26 August 1859, giving Frauenfeld the opportunity to present this report in person. Previous reports had been presented to the Academy of Sciences in absentia.

2. The Novara had left Shanghai on 11 August 1858, with only brief stopovers at the islands of Puynipet (17 September) and Sikyana (17 October) prior to arriving off the coast of eastern Australia early in November.

3. The immigrant ship Dunbar was wrecked at South Head, midway between the Macquarie Lighthouse and the Gap, around midnight on 20 August 1857. Of those on board at the time, only one survived, with the remaining 121 passengers and crew drowning as the vessel was smashed against the sheer sandstone cliffs of South Head. It was suggested the disaster was the result of the captain's attempt to enter Sydney Harbour without a pilot, in stormy weather.

4. Dr. George Bennett (1804-93) medical practitioner and naturalist, was a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, London, and member of the Linnean Society of London and the Zoological Society. A zoologist of note, he settled in Sydney in 1836 and developed a close association with the Australian Museum - he was its first Secretary and unofficial Director for a time. Through this association he was able to carry out various researches and continue to publish, producing the book Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia in 1860. This work was compiled during 1858-9 - around the time of the Novara visit - and though it contains no reference to the Austrians or Georg Frauenfeld, it nevertheless overlaps with much of the material contained in the latter scientist's article on New Holland, describing many of the same native plants and animals. For a biographical portrait of Bennett refer Chisholm (1966).

5. It is unclear whether Frauenfeld made this visit to George Bennett's immediately following the berthing of the Novara off Garden Island at 5.30pm on Friday, 5 November 1858 (this seems unlikely), or over the following few days. We know that he left for the Hunter River on the evening of Tuesday the 9th, thereby allowing him 4 days (Saturday-Tuesday) to make contact. Furthermore, Karl Scherzer records in his diary for the 9th a visit to the Museum accompanied by Bennett, at which point he met Secretary George French Angas. It is unclear whether Frauenfeld was part of that specific group, or had made contact with both gentlemen earlier. The precise chronology of Frauenfeld's visit to Sydney and his various excursions to the north (Newcastle), south (Illawarra) and to later Botany Bay, is therefore subject to some conjecture, largely due to the lack of precise dates within his published 'Notes'.

6. For a detailed description of this specific set of birds, and the circumstances by which Bennett came to acquire them in October 1858, refer chapter IX 'The Mooruk or Cassowary of New Britain, South Pacific Ocean (Casuarius Bennetti)' in Bennett (1860).

7. George French Angas (1822-1886) was an artist, traveller and naturalist who held the position of Secretary and Accountant for the Australian Museum during 1853-60. At the time of the Novara's visit Angas resided at the Museum in College Street, Sydney, with his wife and family. See John Tregenza, George French Angas - Artist, Traveller and Naturalist 1822-1886, Art Gallery Board of South Australia, Adelaide, 1980, 88p.

8. Columbo is the capital of Ceylon (modern Sri Lanka), which place the Novara visited during 8-16 January 1858.

9. This 14-day notice was most likely given upon the arrival of the Novara in port on 5 November, with a tentative departure date around 20 November. It proved to be unwarranted, however, as the vessel was found to have suffered structural damage during a storm in the South China Sea whilst en route to Australia. It was therefore necessary to put into the FitzRoy Dock on Cockatoo Island for repairs. These took place between 13-20 November and, as a result, the Austrian Man-O-War's stay in Sydney was extended to span four weeks, instead of the initially planned two. This allowed Frauenfeld and his fellow scientists to make a number of extended excursions around Sydney. The Novara eventually departed for New Zealand on Tuesday, 7 December 1858.

10. Alexander Walker Scott (1800-83), entrepreneur and entomologist, was said to have published over 130 scientific papers during his lifetime. The Scott family moved to Ash Island on the Hunter River in 1846 and from there Scott, assisted by his two artist daughters, carried out various scientific researches, especially with regards to Australian Lepidoptera, or butterflies. Refer Gray (1976) and Ord (1987).

11. It is unclear which steamer Frauenfeld used in his journeys north to the Hunter River and south to Illawarra. He does state that the 'Maitland steamer' took him to Newcastle and up the Hunter to Hexham, near Ash Island. As there is no reference to a steaming vessel called Maitland in the Shipping Gazette of that time, he was probably referring to the steamer which accommodated people travelling to Maitland. The Sydney Morning Herald does note that the steamer Collaroy departed Sydney for the Hunter at 11pm on Tuesday 9 November, and this may have been the one used by Frauenfeld.

12. Refers to Alexander Walker Scott's two daughters Harriett (1832-1910) and Helena (1830-1907). The sisters were extremely skilled natural history artists, and at the time of Frauenfeld's visit were working with their father on the plates for his book Australian Lepidoptera with their Transformations (1864). Joseph Selleny, artist on board the Novara, also assisted with the cover artwork during his brief stay at Ash Island in November 1858. Refer Ord (1987).

13. Baron Charles von Hügel, Austrian diplomat and natural history collector, visited Western Australia, Tasmania, New South Wales and Norfolk Island between November 1833 and October 1834, observing the flora and collecting seeds and cuttings for his gardens back home in Austria. It was these specimens which Frauenfeld refers to having studied prior to his voyage to Australia. See Dymphna Clarke, Baron Charles von Hügel - New Holland Journal, November 1833 - October 1834, Melbourne University Press, 1994, 539p.

14. It is possible that he used the steamer Nora Creina for the trip south to Illawarra, based on notices of coastal shipping movements reported in the Illawarra Mercury for November 1858. The Nora Creina operated between the Hunter, Wollongong, Kiama and Shoalhaven at that time.

15. A party from the Novara, comprising Commander Wullerstorf-Urbair, Karl Scherzer, Joseph Selleny, Johannes Zelebor and cabin boy Alois Kraus, set off on Tuesday 16 November for Illawarra, travelling overland via Camden and Appin. They arrived at Wollongong on the 18th, stayed on until the 20th, and returned to Sydney on Sunday 21st. Frauenfeld was not part of this group (he is not mentioned in Karl Scherzer's detailed diary account of the visit), and does not appear to have encountered them at any stage during his travels in the region. His route was to take him north-west from Kiama to Dapto, where he encountered remnants of dense rainforest vegetation, then on to Wollongong for a day's scientific investigation. The following day the mail coach took him up the Illawarra Escarpment to Appin via Broughton's Pass, and then on to Campbelltown, where he was able to catch the train to Sydney.

16. The Illawarra Mercury (22 November 1858) noted that on 17 November the Nora Creina was forced to 'hove too' at Wollongong harbour and send her passengers on shore in boats, before travelling on to Kiama and the Shoalhaven, where, supposedly, the same drill applied due to the rough weather.

17. James Kidd is listed as a freehold farmer at West Dapto in the 1855-6 electoral roll for the County of Camden. The rich, volcanic soils of this area, and its close proximity to the Illawarra Escarpment, gave rise to dense, semi-littoral rainforest dominated by figtrees, vines and cabbage palms.

18. Galls are abnormal growth reactions which form in the tissue of host plants due to the presence of insects, etc.

19. The Austrians variously refer to this pass as 'Mitchell's Pass', 'Sir John Mitchell's Pass', or 'Sir Thomas Mitchell's Pass', after the New South Wales Surveyor General and explorer Sir Thomas Livingston Mitchell, though it was also known at the time (and at present) as Broughton's Pass. Refer to J. Selleny's lithograph 'Broughton's oder Sir Thom Mitchell's Pass in Neu-Sud-Wales' in Karl Scherzer's Reise (volume III, facing p.26).

20. In the original article Frauenfeld here states 'Bathurst Plain', however as this is located on the western side of the Blue Mountains, and is not visible from Mitchell's Pass on the south side of Appin, it is obviously an error. The editor assumes Frauenfeld meant to say Cumberland Plain. Likewise 'the valley of the Parramatta' more than likely refers to the 'valley of the Nepean River' which at this point flows northerly towards Parramatta.

21. Father Joseph Receveur, ship's chaplain and a naturalist on board the Astrolabe, died at Botany Bay on 17 February 1788 as a result of wounds received during a skirmish between local natives and the French at Tutuila, Navigator's (Samoan) Islands on 11 December 1787. Only 49 of the 61 French sailors involved in the fracas escaped, with Receveur receiving a blow to the eye from a rock thrown with great force and at close quarters. He appeared to have been recovering from his wounds at the time of the French expedition's arrival in New South Wales, however Receveur passed away suddenly on the 17th February. The frigates Astrolabe and Boussole left Botany Bay shortly thereafter on 10 March 1788, bound for Tongatapu (Fiji), New Caledonia and Vanikoro Island in the Soloman Group. Both vessels were wrecked off Vanikoro during a cyclone, approximately six weeks after leaving Botany Bay. No survivors ever returned to France, and the fate of Laperouse's expedition was not discovered until some forty years later. Refer R.C. Shelton, From Hudson Bay to Botany Bay - The Lost Frigates of Lapérouse, NC Press, Toronto, 1987, 228p.

22. William Sharp Macleay (1792-1865), scholar and naturalist, arrived in Sydney in 1839, briniging with him a formidable reputation as both a theoretical and practical scientist. A specialist in the field of entomology, he continued his researches whilst in Australia, based at his residence Elizabeth Bay House on the shores of Sydney Harbour. Here he housed a large collection of scientific specimens, whilst the associated gardens were acclaimed throughout the Colony for their range of both exotic and native species. A number of members of the Novara expedition visited Macleay at Elizabeth Bay during 1858, and though he had not published for a number of years, he was still active in his research. Refer D.S. Macmillan, 'William Sharp Macleay', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 2: 1788-1850, I-Z, Melbourne, 1967, 182-3; J.J. Fletcher, 'The Society's heritage from the Macleays', Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, XLV(4), 1920, 567-635.

23. Alfred Roberts (1823-98) surgeon and naturalist, arrived in Sydney in 1854. He was an active member of the Philosophical Society (later Royal Society) of New South Wales and became a trustee of the Australian Museum in 1858. He pursued his various researches whilst pursuing an active career as surgeon at the Sydney Infirmary and later the Prince Alfred Hospital. Refer M. Rutledge, 'Sir Alfred Roberts', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 6: 1851-1890, R-Z, Melbourne University Press, 1976, 34-5.

24. Most likely refers to the two albums containing 216 watercolour and pencil drawings of birds, fish, animals and insects which the late Dr. James Stuart (c.1802-42) natural history painter and surgeon, had bequeathed to W.S. Macleay upon his untimely death in 1842. Refer D.G. Hamilton, 'James Stuart', in J. Kerr (ed.), The Dictionary of Australian Artists, Melbourne, 1992, 769-70.

25. Karl Scherzer recorded the event in his diary for Monday, 22 November 1858, on receiving news of the birth of the Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria to the Empress Elizabeth. This, along with and the Novara expedition's presence in Sydney, was shortly thereafter celebrated by a number of public events, including a 'Novara Ball' and party on board ship organised in collaboration with the local German/Austrian community. These festivities are described in detail within the diaries of Karl Scherzer, Blanche Mitchell and Caroline Mann, and J.E. Fletcher's 1985 article on the visit of the Novara to New South Wales.


Within the following bibliography entries in curly brackets {......} are English translations from the German.

Bennett, George, Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia: being Observations Principally on the Animal and Vegetable Productions of New South Wales, New Zealand, and some of the Austral Islands, John van Voorst, London, 1860, 456p.

---- [Portrait], in F.M. Bladen, Historical Notes on the Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney, 1906.

Chisholm, A.H., 'George Bennett', in Australian Dictionary of Biography, Vol. 6, 1851-1890, Melbourne University Press, 1966, 85-6.

Coppleston, V., 'The Life and Times of Dr. George Bennett', Bulletin of the Post-Graduate Committee in Medicine, University of Sydney, 1955, 207-64.

Fletcher, J.E., 'Karl Scherzer and the Visit of the Novara to Sydney, 1858', Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Australian Historical Society, 71(3), 1985, 189-206.

Frauenfeld, Georg, 'Reise von Shanghai bis Sidney auf der k. k. Fregatte Novara', Verhandlungen des Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien, Wien, IX, 1859, 374-82. {Translation: 'Voyage from Shanghai to Sydney aboard the Imperial and Royal Frigate Novara', Proceedings of the Vienna Zoological-Botanical Society, Vienna}

----, 'Notizen, gesammelt während meines Aufenthaltes auf Neuholland, Neuseeland and Taiti, bei der Fahrt Sr. Majestät Fregatte Novara in jenen Gewässern (Vorgetragen in der Sitzung vom 13 October 1859)', Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Achtunddreissigster Band, Jahrgang 1859, No 23 bis 28, Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Wien, 1860, 717-732. {Translation: 'Notes collected during my stay in New Holland, New Zealand and Tahiti, upon the voyage of His Majesty's frigate Novara in their waters. (Presented at the Meeting of 13 October 1859)', Meeting Report of the Mathematical-Natural Science Section of the Imperial Academy of Science, Vienna}

----, 'Eier in einem Australischen Farne', Verhandlungen des Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien, Wien, XIV, 1864, 383-384. {Translation: 'Eggs in an Australian Fern', Proceedings of the Vienna Zoological - Botanical Society}

----, 'Georg Ritter v. Frauenfeld' [Obituary notice], Verhandlungen des Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien {Proceedings of the Vienna Zoological-Botanical Society}, Wien, XXIII, 1873, 535-538.

Gray, Nancy, 'Alexander Walker Scott', Australian Dictionary of Biography. Volume 6: 1851-1890. R-Z, Melbourne University Press, 1976, 93-4

Naumann, I., Handbook of Australian Insect Names, CSIRO, Melbourne, 1993.

Ord, Marion, 'The Scott Sisters. Art treasures of the 19th century revealed', Australian Natural History, 22(5), Winter 1987, 194-8.

Pizzey, Graham, A Field Guide to the Birds of Australia, Angus & Robertson, 1994, 460p.

Waterhouse, G. A. et al., The Insects of Australia: a textbook for students and research workers, 2nd ed., Division of Entomology, CSIRO, Carlton South, 1991, 2 vols.

Appendix 1

Index to Flora and Fauna mentioned in the Text

The following alphabetical listing has been compiled from Frauenfeld's article. It lists the various flora and fauna encountered by him in New South Wales, or mentioned in his report. Scientific names are given in italics. Modern classifications have been taken from Naumann (1993) and Pizzey (1994). The animal kingdom is classified in the following manner:



Common Name

















otanes (C & R Felder)

Small brown azure butterfly

Within the following listing brief descriptions only are given, to aid in identification where possible.

Text Reference / Description

Acacia - Wattle Tree
Acanthorhynchus - Spinebills, Hummingbirds, Honeyeaters
Acanthyllis - Swift
Anas punctata- Duck
Anas superciliosa - Black Duck, also Brown, Grey or Wild Duck
Anoplurae - Parasite
Aquila fucosa - New Holland Eagle
Australian Stork - Numenius
Bald-headed Leatherhead - Tropidohynchus corniculatus
- Proteaceae
Bellbird - Oreoica
Black Parrot
Black Swan - Cygnus atratus
Blue Gum - Eucalyptus
Brahming Kite
Bronze-winged Butterfly - Phaps chalcoptera
Butterflies - Lepidoptera
Carsarca tadornoides
- Duck
Casuarina - Oak Tree
Casuarius Bennetti (Morok) - Cassowary
Cavia cobaya - bird
Chlorozema - flora
Cicada - Cicadidae
- Australian Treecreeper
Common Soldier Bird - Myzantha melanocephala(?), also Noisy Miner bird
Cormorant - Family Phalacrocoracidae
Corvus coronoides
- Australian Raven, also Crow or Kelly
Curlew - Family Scolopacidae
- Cycadaceaie (flora)
Cystosoma Saundersii - Bladder Cicada
Dacelo gigantea - Laughing Jackass, or Kookaburra
Daviesia - flora
Dillwynia - shrub
Doryanthes excelsa - Gigantic Lily, modern Gymea Lily
Duck - see Anas punctata; Anas superciliosa; Carsarca tadornoides
Echidna histrix
- Echidna
Emphemen - parrot
Emu - Dromaius novaehollandiae
Eos - parrot
Estrelda temporalis - bird
Eucalyptus - Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus robusta
- Swamp Mahogany
Exocarpus - Native Cherry (Exocarpus sparteus; Exocarpus stricta)
Fungal parasite - Sphaeria Robertsii
Gall fly
Galls - Abnormal growth reactions in tissues of host plants
Geophaps scripta
Gigantic Lily - Doryanthes excelsa
Grass-trees - Xantorrhoea arborea
Green Cicada- -
Grizzly Bear
Grus australasicus - Native Companion
Gymnorhina tibicea
Halmaturus walabatus - Wallaby
Hipparchia Merope - Butterfly
Hirundo ariel - Swallow
Hirundo neoxena - Welcome Swallow, also Australian or House Swallow
Hypsiprimnus sp.
Indian Bear
Kangaroo - Macropus major
- flora
Kites - Brahming Kite and Milvus affinis
Larus pacificus
- Pacific Gull
Laughing Jackass - Dacelo gigantea
Leatherhead - Tropidohynchus corniculatus
Lepidoptera - Butterflies
Long-beaked Oyster Catcher - Bird
Macropus Benetti?
Macropus major - Giant Kangaroo
Macrozamia - flora
Malurus cyaneus - bird
Marsh Deer
Melaleuca - flora
Metrosideros - flora
Milvus affinis - Kite
Molluscs - Sea Molluscs
Monitore- Lizard
Morok - Casuarius Bennetti - Cassowary bird
Muscicapiden - bird
Myrtaceae - flora
Native Bear - Phascolarctos - Koala Bear
Native Cat
Native Cherry - Exocarpus
Native Companion - Grus australasicus
Native dog - Dingo
Native Pear - Xylomelum
New Holland Eagle - Aquila Fucosa
New Holland Goose
New Zealand Rail
Numenius - Australian Stork
Norfolk Island Pine - Araucaria heterophylla
Nycteribia - Nycteribiidae (Diptera) Bat Flies
Nycteribidae - Nycteribiidae (Diptera) Bat Flies
Nymphicus - bird
Oiketicos [Oiketicus elongatus?](Lepidoptera) - Saunders' Case Moth or Large Bag Worm (Qld.)
Oxylobium - flora
Pacific Gull - Larus pacificus
- flora
Pelecanus conspicillatus
Peregrine Falcon - bird
Phaps chalcoptera
Phascolarctos - Native (Koala) Bear
Physolobium - flora
Pigeon, Crowned (New Guinea)
Plyctolophus Leadbeateri - bird
Phylloden - Acacias
Prickly lizard
Proteaceae - flora
Psyche helix - Snail
Psychiden - Psychidae (Lepidoptera) case moths, bag moths, bag worms
Rail, New Zealand - bird
Raymondia Huberi - Fly
Sea Molluscs
Siberian dog
Sickle Bills
Slug - Gastropoda
Smicrornis - Weebill or Tit bird
Snouted Bear
Soldier Bird
Spatula rhynchotis - Duck
Sphaeria Robertsii - Fungal parasite
Spring leeches
Sterna melanorhyncha - Tern
Stipiturus malachurus - Bird
Stork - Numenius
Strand Plover - Family Charadriidae
- Fly - Streblidae (Diptera) bat flies
Strepera graculina - Bird
Stylidien - flora
Swainsonia - flora
Swallow - Hirundo neoxena
Swallows - Family Hirundinidae
Swifts - Acanthyllis?
Tadorna Radjah - White-headed Shelduck
Telopea speciosissima - Waratah
Tineiden- Tineidae (Lepidoptera) clothes moths, wool moths
Tree ferns - flora
Trichoglossus - bird
Tropidohynchus corniculatus - Leatherhead
Wallaby - Halmaturus walabatus
Wangawanga (Wonga Wonga) Pigeon - Leucosarcia melanoleuca
Waratah - Telopea speciosissima
Warblers - Family Acanthizidae
White Swan - Cygnus olor, also Mute Swan
Xantorrhoea - flora
Xantorrhoea arborea - Grass Tree
Xylomelum - Native Pear

Introduction | Scherzer Diary | Narrative | Sydney | Selleny | Bibliography | Novara Expedition | Hochstetter I
Blanche Mitchell Diary | Minnie Mann Diary | Hochstetter II | FitzRoy Dock | Scherzer in Sydney | Frauenfeld Diary

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