Metropolis Bibliography - Introduction Metropolis Bibliography - Books, Articles and Manuscripts Metropolis Bibliography - Internet Web Sites Metropolis Bibliography - Artwork, Posters and Photographs Metropolis Bibliography - Music Metropolis Bibliography - Film Metropolis Bibliography - Videos, Quicktime, DVD Metropolis Bibliography - Reviews 1927 Metropolis Bibliography - Australia 1928 Metropolis Bibliography - Posters

Section 1: Books, Articles and Manuscripts

The following bibliography of published and manuscript material up to 2001 relating to Fritz Lang's Metropolis is arranged chronologically by year, and then alphabetically by author within individual years, apart from the years 1924-7, wherein the arrangement is purely chronological (where known). References are primarily to articles and book chapters which describe in some detail aspects of the film, though general works dealing with contemporary German cinema and individuals involved in the making of Metropolis, such as Fritz Lang (director), Eric Pommer (producer) and Brigitte Helm (female lead), are also included if they contain substantial sections on the film. Where a summary of an article or book chapter is included within E. Ann Kaplan's comprehensive annotated bibliography, Fritz Lang: A Guide to References and Resources (1981), this will be so indicated by reference to the individual Kaplan catalogue number, for example: [Kaplan 57]. Entries from the comprehensive bibliography to be found in Jacobson & Sudendorf (2000) have also been included. A separate author index to this section is available, tohugh it is not comprehensive. Reference should also be made to Section 2: Web Sites for information on Metropolis-related articles available only on the Internet, and to Section 10: Chronology for the history of the development and production of Metropolis between 1924-7. Additional chronologies are to be found in Eisenschitz (1985) and Jacobson & Sudendorf (2000).

1924 {Arranged Chronologically}

Anon., '[Visit to Vienna]', Film Kurier, Berlin, 19 May 1924. Report on a publicity visit to Vienna by Fritz Lang and Thea von Harbou in connection with the release of Die Nibelungen. Therein reference is made to the couple's next as yet unnamed film (Metropolis). Cited in Gehler and Kasten (1990).

----, 'Film - Ertrablatt', Illustriertes Wiener Extablatt, Vienna, 4 July 1924. Report on the summer vacation of Fritz Lang and Thea von Harbou in the Alps near Salzburg, wherein they aimed ' finish the screenplay of their new film Metropolis.' This is the earliest known reference to the film by that name.

----, 'German Director Lang Here', New York Telegraph, New York, 14 October 1924 [Kaplan 57]. This news story reports on Fritz Lang's visit to America at the end of 1924 in order ' see the new cameras and to study the big cities for his next feature, Metropolis.' Lang was accompanied by two senior Ufa officials and producer Eric Pommer. Upon arrival in New York harbour, the view from the ship of the skyline at night had a profound effect on the director. It supposedly gave him the idea for the film, and influenced the subsequent look of the Metropolis cityscape.

Lang, Fritz, 'Broadway by Night', photograph, New York, [October] 1924.

Anon., [Fritz Lang in America], New York Times, 30 November 1924. [Kaplan 58].

Lang, Fritz, 'Was ich im Amerika sah: Neuyork - Los Angeles', Film-Kurier, 6(292), 11, 13 and 17 December 1924.

1925 {Arranged Chronologically}

Lang, Fritz, 'Zwischen Bohrtürmen und Palmen' [Visit to America], Filmland, Berlin, 3 January 1925.

----, 'Der Film von Morgen' [The Film of Tomorrow], Film-Kurier (Special Insert), Berlin, 7 February 1925.

Anon., 'Das Produktionsprogramm der Ufa', Lichtbild-Bühne, Nr. 43, 9 April 1925.

Anon., 'Vietrieb und Verleih: Due Ufa-Produktion', Der Film, 19 April 1925, 45. Quote: 'Fritz Lang has made such progress with the preparations for his film 'Metropolis', based on a novel of the same name by Thea von Harbou, that he will begin shooting at the beginning of May.'

Olimsky, Fritz, 'Pressefest in Neubabelsberg', Berliner Börsen-Zeitung, Nr. 242, 26 May 1925.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Film-Kurier, Nr. 140, 14 June 1925.

Anon., 'Aus der Werkstatt', Der Kinematograph, Nr. 957, 21 June 1925.

Kossowsky, Alex, 'Türme und Katakomben. Gespräch mit Fritz Lang', Film Kurier, Nr. 151, 30 June 1925.

Spitzer, Ludwig, 'Fritz Lang über den Film der Zukunft', Die Filmtechnik / Filmtechnik - Filmkunst, Nr. 2., 15 July 1925, 34-6. [Kaplan 72] Interview with Lang, though he was reluctant to discuss details of Metropolis.

Kraszna-Krauß, Andor, 'Wo man Metropolis dreht...', Die Filmtechnik / Filmtechnik - Filmkunst, Nr. 4, 5 August 1925.

Anon., 'Aus der Werkstatt', Der Kinematograph, Nr. 964, 9 August 1925.

Anon., 'Von der Ufa', Der Film, Nr. 32, 9 August 1925.

Lang, Fritz, 'Was lieben und hassen wir am amerikanischen Film?', Deutsche Filmwoche, 2 October 1925, 35.

Alsen, Hans, 'Filmregisseure, Fritz Lang', 8 Uhr Abendblatt, Berlin, Nr. 249, 23 October 1925, Sec. 3. [Kaplan 73]

Anon., 'Ufa-Nachrichten', Der Film, Nr. 43, 25 October 1925.

Anon., 'Hinter Filmkulissen', Kinematograph, 25 October 1925, 16. Extract in Minden & Bachmann (2000). Report on film of elevator crash scene.

Anon., 'Was die "L.B.B." erzählt', Lichtbild-Bühne, Nr. 219, 31 October 1925.

S-r., 'Der Moloch', Der Film, Nr. 46, 15 November 1925.

Anon., 'Aus Berliner Ateliers. Modell und Wirklichkeit', Der Film, Nr. 48, 20 November 1925.

Anon, 'Wo man Metropolis dreht', Filmtechnik, Nr.4, 1925.

Harbou, Thea von, 'Metropolis Film Script' [1st version], typewritten manuscript, 1 volume, c.1925-6, 406 scenes. Manuscript is part of the "Collection Gottfried Huppertz" which also contains the original handwritten music for Metropolis, Die Nibelungen, Zur Chronik von Grieshuus and other compositions. It was acquired by Gero Gandert for the Stiftung Deutsche Kinemathek, which is now Filmmuseum Berlin-Deutsche Kinemathek. The Metropolis script is annotated "fur Herrn Huppertz", with numerous handwritten annotations re music on each page. Original script dedicated to Eric Pommer. C.f. typed copy, prepared for Enno Patalas 1980s, 2 volumes, no annotations. Copies at Stiftung Deutsche Kinemathek, Berlin, and Munich Film Museum. This manuscript is Thea von Harbou's original script for the film, supposedly prepared during the first half of 1925, prior to the commencement of filming. It varies from the novelisation published in 1926, and the final film as made by Fritz Lang during 1925-6. This manuscript derives from the estate of Gottfried Huppertz, composer of the original film score, and it was only 'discovered' during the 1980s. Refer Enno Patalas (1986b) & Minden (2000).

Hunte, Otto, 'Metropolis - set designs', original drawings, 1925-6, 2 items, Cinematheque Francaise, Paris.

Kettelhut, Erich, 'Metropolis - set design', original drawings and sketches, 1925-6, 13 items, Stiftung Deutsche Kinemathek, Berlin.

----, 'Metropolis - set design', original drawings and sketches, 1925-6, 4 items, Cinematheque Francaise, Paris.

Willkomm, Änne, 'Metropolis - costume designs', 1925-6, 12 drawings, Stiftung Deutsche Kinemathek, Berlin.

Neverov, A., [Interview with Fritz Lang], Kino-Archiv, Moscow, 1925. Reprinted in Kommitee für Kinematographie beim Ministerrat der UdSSR, Die Filme von Fritz Lang, Moskau, 1966.

Anon., 'Leute, die man im Film nicht sieht', Die Filmwoche, Nr. 24, 1925. Interview with Fritz Lang.

1926 {Arranged Chronologically}

{Filming of Metropolis continued throughout 1926, finally wrapping up on 30 October. The cost of the film was approximately 5 million German Marks, or US$2 million. The length of the director's original cut was 4189 metres of tinted, 35mm silent film, with a running time of 183 minutes when projected at 20 frames per second. This was the version submitted to the Berlin Film Censor's Office early in November 1926, and passed on the 13th of that month, ready for release early in January 1927.}

Fraenkel, Heinrich, 'The Story of Fritz Lang, Maker of Siegfried', Motion Picture Classic, 23 March 1926, 38.[Kaplan 74]

Anon., 'Aufnahme-Szenen', Reichsfilmblatt, Nr. 14, 3 April 1926. Production notes.

Anon., 'Metropolis in Fortsetzungen', Der Kinematograph, Nr. 1006, 30 May 1926. Advanced notice of the serialised novel in Das Illustrierte Blatt.

Anon., 'Die Musik von Metropolis', Der Film, Nr.24, 26 July 1926.

Anon., 'Metropolis, die phantastische Maschinen- und Arbeiterstadt der Zukunft, ein neuer Film des Regisseurs Fritz Lang', Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung, Nr. 31, 29 July 1926.

'Metropolis', Photoplay, New York, July 1926. [Photo spread on the production of Metropolis]

'Metropolis', Motion Picture Magazine, New York, August 1926. [Photo spread on the production of Metropolis]

Harbou, Thea von Harbou, "Eine Szene wird geprobt", Uhu, Nr. 11, August 1926.

Lang, Fritz, 'Wege des grossen Spielfilms in Deutschland', Die Literarische Welt, 2, 1 October 1926. Reproduced in Anto Kaes et al. (1994, 622-3). Copy at Quotes, Comments & Reminiscences.

Lang, Fritz, 'Wohen treiben wir? Kritische Prognosen zur neusen Saison', Die Literarische Welt, 10 October 1926. [Kaplan 522]

Anon., 'Drehbuchauszüge: Wie schreibt man Filmmanuskripte? Praktische Beispiele aus guten, noch unveröffentlichten Drehbüchern, an Stelle eines Lehrbuchs. Der Anfang eines Films. Die ersten Bilder von Metropolis von Thea von Harbou', Berliner Tageblatt, Nr. 489, 16 October 1926.

Lang, Fritz, 'Ausblick auf Morgen: Zum Pariser Kongress', Lichtbildbühne, Berlin, 229, 25 October 1926. [Kaplan 522]

Harbou, Thea von, 'Metropolis - als Fortsetzungsroman', Illustriertes Blatt, Frankfurter Zeitung, Frankfurt/Main, [?October-November]1926. Serialised version of the novel.

'Metropolis', Vanity Fair, New York, November 1926. [Photo spread on the production of Metropolis]

Anon., 'Metropolis - Original Intertitles, on Censorship Cards', manuscript, 10 pages, Film Censorship Office of Berlin, 13 November 1926. These cards list the German text of the original intertitles for the film Metropolis. Refer Enno Patalas (1986b) for a discussion of the role these cards and other manuscript evidence such as Thea von Harbou's original film script, her novel, and Huppertz's annotated score can play in reconstructing the film as originally released.

Huppertz, Gottfried (1887-1937), 'Metropolis - original score for piano', manuscript, circa [November] 1926. Stiftung Deutsche Kinemathek, Berlin.

----, 'Metropolis - Orchestra Score', manuscript [first 40 pages missing], circa [November] 1926. Stiftung Deutsche Kinemathek, Berlin.

----, Metropolis Musik zum gleichnamigen Ufa-Film. Op. 29, Universum-Film, Berlin, [November] 1926, 159p. Manuscript musical score, Stiftung Deutsche Kinemathek, Berlin. For piano. This is the original musical score for the film as first premiered at the Ufa-Palast am Zoo, Berlin, on 10 January 1927. It is annotated with 1029 cues for the conductor (one for every third bar) to ensure synchronisation between the music and film / intertitles. The score is useful in that it lists most of the shots and intertitles as seen in the original 183 minute (4,189 metres) version of the film. Refer Palatas (1986b) for a discussion of this document. The SDK copy also includes in Huppertz's hand the cuts made for the German re-release in 1927.

Reimann, Walter, 'Metropolis - design for book jacket', circa [November] 1926, Deutsches Filmmuseum, Frankfurt. Refer 'Walter Reimann: Maler und Filmarchitekt', Kinematograph, Nr.11, Deutsches Filmmuseum, Frankfurt, 1996.

Harbou, Thea von, Metropolis, A. Scherl, Berlin, [December] 1926, 273p, no illustrations, hardcover with dustjacket. This book, which appeared at the end of 1926, is the novelised version of von Harbou's original script. It was written by her in collaboration with Fritz Lang as the film was being developed. The novel varies from the final released film version in a number of key areas, and adds greatly to our understanding of the original narrative, especially in light of the cuts made to Metropolis following its initial Berlin showing. Dust jacket by Walter Reimann - the original artwork is reproduced in Neumann (1997, 100), whilst a copy of the dustjacket as printed is to be seen in Kyle (1976, 50).

Harbou, Thea von, Metropolis, A. Scherl, Berlin, [December] 1926, 198p. Softcover (paperback), with 8 illustrations from the film. For further details refer Metropolis Photo Novel.

Lang, Fritz, 'Broadway' [Multiply-exposed photograph], in Erich Mendelsohn, Amerika: Bilderbuch eines Architekten, Viewag Verlag, Wiesbaden, 1926 [reprinted 1989]. This photograph, taken by Lang during his visit to New York in 1924, was also included in a photomontage by artist El Lissitzky.

Anon., 'Rund um den Film', Der Film, Nr. 33, 31 December 1926. Interview with Alfred Abel.

Anon., 'Der zukunftsphantastische Film Metropolis', Mein Film, Nr. 25, 1926, 9-10. Translation in Minden & Bachmann (2000).

Anon., 'Das Film-Modell', Mein Film, Nr. 28, 1926. Includes shots of Tower of Babel.

1927 {Arranged chronologically}


{10 January 1927 - Metropolis premieres at the Ufa-Palast am Zoo, Berlin, the city's largest picture theatre. It screens for 3 hours 3 minutes and gives rise to widespread critical comment. A copy of the print is sent to America for editing by a team under Channing Pollock. The original German edition is also edited for release in Britain and Europe. As a result of all this editing, it seems that by 1928 there was no copy of the original three hour cut of Metropolis available for public screening.}

Ufa, Metropolis-Programmheft, Ufa-Pavillon am Nollendorfplatz, Berlin, [January] 1927.

----, Metropolis - Programmheft Presse- und Propagandaheft, Herausgegeben von der Presse - und Propagandaabteilung, Theaterreklame, Berlin, [January] 1927. Inlcudes the following contributions:

----, Metropolis - Sondernummer, Ufa Magazin, Bukwa, Presse Abteilung der ufa, Berlin, [January] 1927. Special number devoted to the film, with a cover image by Graul and edited by Stefan Lorant. Price: 30 Pfg. Includes the following articles:

Freund, Karl, 'Wie es gemacht wurde', Metropolis-Programmheft Presse- und Propaganda-Heft, Hg. v. d., Presse- und Propagandaabteilung, Theaterreklame, Berlin, [January] 1927, 8.

Anon., '1.300. 000 Meter Film verbraucht! Zahlen des Lang'schen Metropolis-Films', 8 Uhr-Abendblatt, Nr. 4, 6 January 1927.

Wilkommen, Aenne, 'Metropolis-Moden', Neue Berliner Zeitung – Das 12 Uhr Blatt, Nr. 5, 7 January 1927.

Anon., 'Meine Arbeit an Metropolis [Karl Freund]', B.Z. am Mittang, Berlin, Nr. 7, 7 January 1927. Freund was one of the chief cameramen on the filming of Metropolis, along with Günther Rittau. [Kaplan 88]

Anon., 'Film-Amerikanismus in Berlin. Zur Uraufführung des Films Metropolis', Westfälische Neueste Nachrichten, Bielefeld, 8 January 1927.

Harbou, Thea von, 'Deutscher Film und Weltfilm', Neue Berliner Zeitung - Das 12 uhr Blatt, Nr. 6, 8 January 1927.

Hunte, Otto, 'Der Baumeister von Metropolis erzählt', Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, Nr. 12, 8 January 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis Film Seen: Berlin witnessess a grim portrayal of industrial future', New York Times, 11 January 1927, Section I, 36. [Kaplan 76]

Anon., 'Metropolis Film Cost $2,000,000. Germany's latest thriller a thing of awe and beauty', New York Sun, 11 January 1927, 25. [Kaplan 77]

----, 'Metropolis', Kölnische Zeitung, Köln, 11 January 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Der Mittag, Dusseldorf, 11 January 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Tägliche Rundschau, Nr. 15, 11 January 1927.

----, 'Metropolis - der neue Ufa-Film', Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger, Nr. 16, 11 January 1927.

Degner, Ernst, 'Metropolis', Vorwärts, Nr. 16, 11 January 1927.

Eggebrecht, Axel, 'Metropolis', Welt am Abend, 11 January 1927. Reproduced in Diederichs (1977).

E.S.P., 'Metropolis', Lichtbildühne, Nr. 9, 11 January 1927.

Feld, Hans, 'Metropolis. Der Rahmen', Film-Kärier, Nr.9, 11 January 1927.

Ge, 'Metropolis', Steglitzer Anzeiger, Berlin, 11 January 1927.

Goelz, Erwin / MA (Frank Maraun, 'Metropolis', Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, Nr. 16, 11 January 1927.

Haas, Willy, 'Metropolis', Illustrierter Film-Kurier, 9, 11 January 1927. Reproduced in Section 7.

Hildenbrandt, Fred, 'Metropolis', Berliner Tageblatt, 16, 11 January 1927.

HT, 'Metropolis', Hannoverscher Anzeiger, 11 January 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Berliner Tageblatt, 17, 11 January 1927. [Kaplan 91] Reproduced in Section 7.

Ihering, Herbert, 'Der Metropolis (Vorbericht)', Berliner Börsen-Courier, Nr. 15, 11 January 1927. Reproduced in Section 7.

----, 'Der Metropolis, Ufa-Palast am Zoo', Berliner Börsen-Courier, Nr. 16, 11 January 1927. [Kaplan 92] Reprinted in Ihering (1959). Reproduced in Section 7.

Jünemann, Igna Maria, 'Metropolis', Germania, Nr. 16, 11 January 1927.

Knatz, Karlenst, 'Der Weltfilm der UFA: Fritz Langs Metropolisfilm', Tägliche Rundschau, 47(16), 11 January 1927.

Kubsch, Hugo, 'Metropolis', Deutsche Tageszeitung, Nr. 15, 11 January 1927.

Müller-Hepp, Alfred, 'Metropolis', Berliner Volkszeitung, Nr. 17, 11 January1927.

Mühsam, Dr. Kurt, 'Metropolis', B.Z. am Mittag, Nr. 9, 11 January 1927.

Nürnberg, Rolf, 'Metropolis', Neue Berliner Zeitung – Das 12 Uhr Blatt, Nr. 8, 11 January 1927.

Olimsky, Fritz, 'Metropolis', Berliner Börsen-Zeitung, Nr. 16, 11 January 1927.

R.B., 'Metropolis', Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger, Nr. 16, 11 January 1927.

Santé, Georg, 'Metropolis', Der Westen, Berlin-Wilmersdorf, 11 January 1927

Stempel, A., 'Metropolis', Neue Preußische (Kreuz-)Zeitung, Nr. 16, 11 January 1927.

Wille, Hansjürgen Wille, and Wolfgang von Lengerke, 'Metropolis', 8 Uhr-Abendblatt, Nr. 8, 11 January 1927.

Feld, Hans, 'Huppertz' Metropolis-Musik', Lichtbild-Bühne, Nr. 10, 12 January 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis - Premiere. Ein Gala-Abend im Ufa-Palast', Lichtbild-Bühne, Nr. 9, 12 January 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Berliner Morgenzeitung, 12 January 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Dahlemer Nachrichten, Berlin, 12 January 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Die Filmwoche, Nr. 2, 12 January 1927. Metropolis features on the cover - reproduced in Minden & Bachmann (200).

Dyck-Schnitzer, Fränze, 'Metropolis', Berliner Volks-Zeitung, Nr. 18, 12 January 1927.

Gepard, Erwin (i.e. F. Richard Behrens), 'Metropolis', Der Deutsche, Nr. 9, 12 January 1927.

Glück, Dr. Conrad, 'Metropolis', Berliner Morgenpost, Nr. 10, 12 January 1927.

Grudzinski, H., 'Metropolis', Deutsche Zeitung, Nr. 9a, 12 January 1927.

Jacobs, Monty, 'Metropolis', Vossische Zeitung, Berlin, Nr. 18, 12 January 1927.

R.A., 'Metropolis', Die Rote Fahne, Nr. 9, 12 January 1927. Reproduced in Section 7.

Spitz, Lotte, 'Huppertz' Metropolis-Musik', Vossische Zeitung, Nr. 18, 12 January 1927.

Tischert, Hans, 'Metropolis', Magdeburger Tageszeitung, 12 January 1927; see also Dresdner Neueste Nachrichten, 13 January 1927, and Frankfurter Nachrichten, 14 January 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Dresdner Nachrichten, 13 January 1927.

Brentano, Bernhard von, 'Metropolis', Frankfurter Zeitung, Nr. 32, 13 January 1927. Reprinted in Brentano (1987).

Effler, Heinrich, 'Metropolis', Chemnitzer Tageblatt, 13 January 1927.

Hinck, Heinrich, 'Metropolis', Düsseldorfer Nachrichten, 13 January 1927.

Hirsch, Leo, 'Metropolis', Berliner Tageblatt, Nr. 20, 13 January 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis, der größte deutsche Film', Film Journal, 4(2), 14 January 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Chemnitzer Neueste Nachrichten, 14 January 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Essener Volkszeitung, 14 January 1927.

Harbou, Thea von, 'Bis eine Szene so weit ist....' Ufa Magazin, 3, 14-20 January 1927. [Kaplan 96a]

Spielhofer, Hans, 'Metropolis', Film-Journal, Nr. 2, 14 January 1927.

Stegemann, Paul, 'Metropolis', General-Anzeiger Stettin, 14 January 1927.

Wallner, Dr. Franz, 'Die Metropolis-Musik', B.Z. am Mittag, 14 January 1927.

Anon., 'Motive aus der Musik zu dem Ufa-Film Metropolis von Gottfried Huppertz', Jede Woche Musik, Illustrierte Wochenschrift des Berliner Tageblatts, special reduced size printing of the issue of 15 January 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Reichsfilmblatt, Nr. 2, 15 January 1927.

Betz, Hans-Walter, 'Metropolis', Der Film, Nr. 1, 15 January 1927.

Feige, Max, 'Metropolis', Der Film, Nr. 1, 15 January 1927.

Pinthus, Kurt, 'Lemberg und Metropolis', Das Tage-Buch, 8(3), 15 January 1927.

Rittau, Günter, 'Die Trickaufnahmen im Metropolis-Film', Reichsfilmblatt, Nr. 2, 15 January 1927; Kinotechnische Rundschau, 2, 15 January 1927, 33; Deutsche Filmwoche, 4, 28 January 1927, 10; Mein Film, Vienna, Nr. 60, February 1927.

Anon., '$2,000,000 German Film', New York Times, 16 January 1927, Section 7, 7. Reproduced in Section 7.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Der Kinematograph, Nr. 1039, 16 January 1927.

Degner, Ernst, 'Metropolis', Vorwärts, Nr. 26, 16 January 1927.

Rosenthal, Alfred (Aros), 'Metropolis', Der Montag, Sonderausgabe des Berliner Lokal-Anzeigers, 17 January 1927.

----, Welt am Montag, Nr. 3, 17 January 1927.

Waldor, 'Metropolis', Dortmunder General-Anzeiger, Nr. 14, 17 January 1927.

Anon., Posener Tageblatt, 18 January 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Evening Journal, New York, 18 January 1927.

Eggebrecht, Axel, 'Metropolis', Die Weltbühne, Berlin, Nr.3, 18 January 1927. [Kaplan 87]

Anon., 'Filmmusik', Signale für die musikalische Welt, Berlin, Nr. 3, 19 January 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Deutsche Filmwoche, Nr. 3, 19 January 1927.

Ickes, Paul, 'Kritik der Leinwand: Metropolis', Deutsche Filmwoche, Nr. 3, 19 January 1927, 60-1.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Die Filmwoche, Nr. 3, 19 January 1927, 56.

Ickes, Paul, 'Kritik der Leinwand: Metropolis', Die Filmwoche, Berlin, Nr. 3, 19 January 1927. [Kaplan 78]

Hartmann, Siegfried, 'Metropolis-Technik', Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, Nr. 31, 20 January 1927.

Anon., 'Wie sich der Film die Zukunft vorstellt', Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung, Nr. 1, 21 January 1927.

Haas, Willy, 'Zwei grosse Filmpremieren: Metropolis', Die Literarische Welt, Berlin, Nr. 3, 21 January 1927, 7. [Kaplan 97] Translated in Minden & Bachmann (2000).

Jacques, Norbert, 'Metropolis', Hannoverscher Anzeiger, 21 January 1927. Reprinted in Fritz Lang: Metropolis, München: Münchner Filmmuseum und Münchner Filmzentrum, 1988.

Treuner, Hermann, 'Metropolis', Deutsche Filmwoche, Nr. 3, 21 January 1927.

Pohl, Gerhart, 'Metropolis', A.I.Z. Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung, Nr. 4, 26 January 1927.

Erdmann, Hans, 'Metropolis – Liebe, Manuskript – Musik', Reichsfilmblatt, Nr. 4, 29 January 1927.

Lydor, Waldemar, 'Musikalisches aus Metropolis', Germania, Nr. 48, 29 January 1927.

Marcus, Gerda, 'Det senaste underverket - Fritz Langs 'Metropolis' en jallesuces vid Berlinpremiaren', Filmjournalen, Arg.9, Nr 2, Stockholm, Sweden, 31 January 1927, 35, 54. Reproduced at Filmjournalen web page.

'Metropolis' [advertisement], Filmjournalen, Nr 3, Stockholm, Sweden, 1927. Ufa advertisement, featuring Metropolis. Reproduced at Filmjournalen web page.

Heine, Thomas Theodor, 'Simpl-Woche für Filmregisseure', Simplizissimus, Nr. 44, 31 January 1927. Caricatures about Metropolis.

K., 'Metropolismen', Simplizissimus, Nr. 44, 31 January 1927. Satirical commentary.

Lang, Fritz, 'Was ich noch zu sagen habe', in Frederick Proges (ed.), Mein Film, Vienna, 53, [January] 1927, 3. Article contains comments by Lang on the making of Metropolis and his view of the final result.

Paladsteatrets Films Nyheder, No.17, Season 1926-27, [January 1927], 20p. Dutch film programme, dedicated to Metropolis, with story outline and illustrations.


Arnheim, Rudolf, 'Metropolis', Das Stachelschwein, Nr.2, 1 February 1927, 52-3. [Kaplan 82] Reprinted in Dietrich (1977).

Balthasar (Roland Schacht), 'Metropolis', Das Blaue Heft, Nr. 3, 1 February 1927. Reprinted in Fritz Lang: Metropolis, München: Münchner Filmmuseum und Münchner Filmzentrum, 1988, 5-13.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Neue Freie Presse, Vienna, 8 February 1927. Report on premiere in Vienna.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Wiener Neueste Nachrichten, Vienna, 8 February 1927. Report on premiere in Vienna.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Weltblatt Wien, Vienna, 9 February 1927.

----, 'Die Vorführung des Metropolis-Filmes in Wien', Extrablatt, Vienna, 9 February 1927.

J.F., 'Metropolis', Neue Zeitung, 9 February 1927.

Rosenfeld, Fritz, 'Metropolis', Arbeiter Zeitung, Vienna, 9 February 1927.

Anon., 'Gala Premiere [in Vienna] von Metropolis', Reichsfilmblatt, Nr. 6, 12 March 1927.

Stern, Lisbeth, 'Bewegengskunst', Sozialistische Monatschefte, 14 February 1927.

Heuss, Theodor, 'Metropolis', Die Hilfe, Nr. 4, 15 February 1927. Reproduced in Wolfgang Jacobsen, Erich Pommer. Ein Produzent macht Filmgeschichte, Argon, Berlin, 1989, 71-75.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Paimann's Filmlisten, Vienna, Nr. 566-7, 18 February 1927, 16.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Linzer Tagespost, 20 February 1927, 16.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Variety, 23 February 1927, 16.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Oesterreichische Tagespost, Vienna, 24 February 1927, 16.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Variety, 23 February 1927, 16.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Die Bühne, 120, 25 February 1927.

Balthasar, (Roland Schacht), 'Metropolis', Das Blaue Heft, 3, February 1927.

Anon., [Fritz Lang and Thea von Harbou in Vienna], Mein Film, Vienna, 24 February and 3 March 1927.

W.R., 'Metropolis', Die Form, 2, February 1927.


Anon., Filmiaitta, No.11, [March] 1927, Helsinki, Finland. Metropolis items include illustration on title page plus advertisement on rear cover. For copies of illustrations see following link - Filmiaitta.

Anon., 'The Creator of Metropolis - Thea von Habou's Imaginative Work', Bioscope, London, 3 March 1927, 49.

Kraszna-Krausz, Andor, 'Metropolis', Filmkunst - Filmtechnik, Nr. 5, 5 March 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis', New York Times, 6 March 1927, section 8, 7.

Scheffauer, Herman G., 'An impression of the German film Metropolis', New York Times, 6 March 1927, 7. [Kaplan 95] Reprinted in The New Yorker, 3(4), 12 March 1927. Reproduced in Section 7.

Anon., 'Metropolis', New York Times, 7 March 1927, 16.

Hall, Morduant, 'Review of Metropolis', New York Times, 7 March 1927. [Kaplan 79] Reproduced in Section 7.

Pollock, Channing, 'Metropolis', Metropolis - Press Release, Paramount, New York, circa 7 March 1927. Quote: 'As it stood when I began my job of structural editing, Metropolis had no restraint or logic. It was symbolism run such riot that people who saw it could not tell what the picture was all about. I have given it my meaning.'

Vreeland, Frank, 'Metropolis', New York Telegraph, 7 March 1927. Reprinted in Kauffmann (1972). Reproduced in Section 7.

Riehle, Dr. Herbert, 'Die Musik zu Metropolis', Deutsche Filmwoche, Berlin, 11 March 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis', The Moving Picture World, 12 March 1927, 135.

Anon., 'Metropolis in New York, Kopenhagen, Paris', Reichsfilmblatt, Nr. 10, 12 March 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Film Daily, 13 March 1927, 8.

Bartlett, Randolph, 'German Film Revision Upheld as Needed Here', New York Times, 13 March 1927. [Kaplan 84] Reproduced in Section 7.

Hall, Morduant, 'Review of Metropolis', New York Times, 13 March 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis - Are British Films Menaced by a German Hollywood?', Morning Post, 15 March 1927. Illustrated Minden & Bachmann (2000).

Sime (Sime Silverman), 'Metropolis', Variety, 16 March 1927. Reproduced in Section 7.

Anon., 'Cast of 37,000 - Metropolis an Amazing German Film', Bioscope, London, 17 March 1927, 53.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Kinematograph Weekly, London, 17 March 1927. Advertisement on rear cover.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Le Courrier Cinématographique, 19 March 1927. Illustrated Minden & Bachmann (2000).

Everschor, Franz, 'Metropolis', Film-Dienst, 19 March 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis - Sinister City of the Future', Daily Express, 22 March 1927, 9.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Daily Mail, London, 22 March 1927, 17.

Poulaille, Henri, 'Metropolis', Ere nouvelle, 22 March 1927.

Gerstein, Evelyn, 'Metropolis', Nation, New York, 23 March 1927,323-4. [Kaplan 89] Reprinted in Kauffmann (1972). Reproduced in Section 7.

Anon., 'Metropolis - The Talk of the Town', Daily Express, London, 23 March 1927, 4. Review of London premiere.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Bioscope, 24 March 1927. Quote: "..the most remarkable and unique spactacle ever shown on the screen.'

Collier, Lionel, 'Metropolis', Kinematograph Weekly, London, 24 March 1927, 57.

Sherwood, E.E., 'Metropolis', Life, 24 March 1927, 89, 24.

Anon., 'Die entfesselte Kamera', Ufa-Magazin, 25-31 March 1927.

Barry, Iris, 'The Cinema: Metropolis', Spectator, London, 26 March 1927, 540. [Kaplan 83] Reproduced in Section 7

Metropolis Magazine, 'Premiere Presentation at the Marble Arch Pavilion, Monday, March 28th. Special Season', Wardour / UFA, London, March 1927, 32p. All pages reproduced at Metropolis Magazine.For reprint, refer Keen (1985).

Seldes, Gilbert, 'Metropolis', The New Republic, 50(643), 30 March 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis Draws the Crowds', Bioscope, London, 31 March 1927, 11.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Filmjournalen, Stockholm, Sweden, Arg. 9, Nr 6, 31 March 1927. Swedish film journal, containing front title page image featuring Metropolis, plus full page advertisement for Metropolis on rear cover. Reproduced at Filmjournalen web page.


Anon., 'Metropolis', Cinéa-Ciné pour tous, Nr. 82, 1 April 1927.

Omicron, 'Review of Metropolis', Nation, London, 40, 2 April 1927, 925. [Kaplan 93]

Conan-Doyle, Sir Arthur, 'Was is los?', Ufa-Magazin, 15-21 April 1927. This article includes positive comments on the film by the noted British author.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Ciné-Miroir, Nr. 120, 16 April 1927.

.Sch., Dr., 'Verfeinerung der Filmmusik', Steglitzer Anzeiger, Berlin, 16 April1927.

Wells, H.G., 'Mr. Wells Reviews a Current Film, Metropolis', New York Times Magazine, 17 April 1927, 4, 22. [Kaplan 98] Mr. Wells' review is scathing, citing Metropolis as '...quite the silliest film..' See also Siesmen (1927b) and Weinburg (1936) for comments on his views. Reproduced in Section 7.

Felf, Hans, 'Druckt Original-Filmkompositionen', Film-Kurier, Nr. 95, 23 April1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Scientific American, April 1927, 136, 244-5.

Anon., 'Review of Metropolis', National Board of Review Magazine, 2, April 1927, 12. [Kaplan 80]

Anon., 'Minutes of Meetings', Board of Directors, Ufa, Berlin, Transcipt 3, Meeting 7, April 1927. Quote: 'Metropolis should keep up its run in the American version in ten to twelve large cities in the provinces, after deleting as many intertitles as possible with communist overtones. In the Autumn or, in the case of bad weather, as early as late summer, the film should be re-released in Berlin'.

Anon., 'Minutes of Meetings', Board of Directors, Ufa, Berlin, Transcipt 4, Meeting 8, April 1927.

Pander, Hans, 'Filmschau: Metropolis', Der Bildwart, Heft 4/5, April/May 1927, 326-9. Discusses the length and rating of the censored version.


Wells, H.G., 'Mr. Wells Reviews a Current Film, Metropolis', Frankfurter Zeitung, 3 May 1927. Reprint of Wells' New York Times review of 17 April.

Herring, Robert, 'Metropolis', London Mercury, 16 May 1927, 92-3. [Kaplan 90]

Anon., 'Metropolis', Photoplay, May 1927, 31, 52. Reprinted in Anthony Slide, Selected Film Criticism 1921-1930, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1982.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Lectures pour tous, May 1927.

Emmel, Felix, 'Film und Volk. Eine Denkschrift an das Reichsministerium des Innern und die Filmindustrie', Preußische Jahrbücher, 208(2), May 1927. Reprinted in Jacobson (1989).


Siesmen, Hans von (a), 'Eine Filmkritik, Wie sie sein soll', (Review of Metropolis), Die Weltbühne, Berlin, Nr. 24, 14 June 1927. [Kaplan 96]

Siesmen, Hans vo (b), [Comments on H.G. Wells' review of Metropolis]', Die Weltbühne, Berlin, 19 June 1927. [Kaplan 98] Reprinted in H.S.: Schriften. Bd. II: Kritik-Aufsatz-Polemik Torso, Essen, 1988.

Anon., 'The Science of Metropolis', Science and Invention, New York, June 1927.

Gürster, Eugen, 'Metropolis oder der Weltanschauungsfilm', Die Tat, 3, June 1927; reprinted in Der Kunstwart. Deutscher Dienst am Geiste, 1, 1927/1928.


Siemsen, Hans, 'Eine Filmkritik, wie sie sein soll', Die Weltbühne, 24, 14 July 1927.

Helm, Brigitte, '[Interview]', Prager Presse, 22 July 1927. Quoted in Bohm (1986).


Balthasar (Roland Schacht), 'Metropolis', Das Blaue Heft, Nr. 15, 1 August 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Cinéa-Ciné pour tous, Nr. 91, 15 August 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis: Wie ihn nicht alle sahen, wie er aber gesehen werden soll. Zu den in Deutschland beginnenden Provinzaufführungen', in Tremonia Dortmund, Führende Zentrumszeitung Westdeutschlands, 23 August 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Wiesbader Tageblatt, 25 August 1927.

Abel, Alfred, 'Chaos', Ufa-Programmblatt, 26 August 1927. Reprinted in Programmblatt. Filmmuseum/Münchner Stadtmuseum 1988 anläßlich der Wiederaufführung von Metropolis am 24. und 25.10.1988, Philharmonie im Gasteig, München, 1988.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Neues Tageblatt, Stuttgart, 26 August 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Süddeutsche Zeitung, Stuttgart, 26 August 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Württembergische Zeitung, 26 August 1927.

Harbou, Thea von, 'Eine Szene wird geprobt', Uhu, Berlin, 11, 26 August 1927.

Dp., 'Metropolis', Casseler Tageblatt, 26 August 1927.

Königsbauer, Andreas, 'Metropolis', Münchner Zeitung, 26 August 1927.

Anon, 'Metropolis', Bremer Nachrichten, 27 August 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Dresdner Volkszeitung, 27 August 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Kölnische Zeitung, 27 August 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Königsberger Allgemeine Zeitung, 27 August 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Oberschlesische Volksstimme, Gleiwitz, 27 August 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Staats-Anzeiger für Württemberg, Stuttgart, 27 August 1927.

H.O.R., 'Metropolis', Märkischer Sprecher, Bochum, 27 August 1927.

Wi., 'Metropolis in Stuttgart', Film-Kurier, Nr. 202, 27 August 1927.

Anon., 'Zur Metropolis-Musik von Gottfried Huppertz', Braunschweigersche Landeszeitung, 28 August 1927; also in Neue Badische Landeszeitung, 28 August1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Dresdner Nachrichten, 28 August 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Neueste Nachrichten, Braunschweig, 28 August 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Schlesische Volkszeitung, Breslau, 28 August 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', Volkswille, Hannover, 28 August 1927.

Gehrels, 'Metropolis', Bremer Nachrichten, 28 August 1927.

G.F., 'Metropolis', Hannoversches Tageblatt, 28 August 1927.

H.Bl., 'Metropolis', Kölner Tageblatt, 28 August 1927.

H.R., 'Metropolis', Neue Badische Landeszeitung, 28 August 1927.

R.P., 'Metropolis', Münchner Neueste Nachrichten, 28 August 1927.

Anon, 'Metropolis', Braunschweigersche Landeszeitung, 28 August 1927.


Anon, 'Metropolis', Chemnitzer Neueste Nachrichten, 2 September 1927.

R.P., Dr., 'Metropolis', Süddeutsche Filmzeitung, Nr. 36, 2 September 1927.

Beaton, Welford, 'Metropolis', The Film Spectator, Hollywood, 3 September 1927. Reprinted in Kauffmann (1972) and Slide (1982). Reproduced in Section 7.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Mon Ciné, Nr. 394, 5 September 1927.

Pasche, Hans, 'Die Metropolis-Musik', Schallkiste, Berlin, September 1927.


Anon., 'Metropolis', Picture Show, London, 1 October 1927. Trade magazine with a feature on Metropolis, including a serialized retelling of the plot.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Cinéa-Ciné pour tous, Nr. 94, 1 October 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Ciné-Miroir, 3 October 1927.

Balthasar, (Roland Schacht), 'Metropolis im Kintopp. Premierenfilme - Gebrauchsfilme', Film-B.Z., 264, 11 October 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Ciné-Magazine, Nr. 41, 14 October 1927.

Monda, Jean, 'Metropolis', Volonté, 18 October 1927.

Anon, 'Metropolis', Wilhelmshavener Tageblatt, 21 October 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Ciné-Magazine, Nr. 42, 21 October 1927.

Anon, 'Metropolis', Badischer Beobachter, Karlsruhe i.B., 22 October 1927.

Vuillermere, Emile, 'Metropolis', Temps, 22 October 1927.

Ufa / ACE, Metropolis - Pressbook [French], Paris, circa October 1927. Copy at Musée d'histoire contemporaine, Paris.


Flamentin, Albert, 'Metropolis', Revue de Paris, 15 November 1927.

Anon., 'Der "kommunistische" Metropolis film', Berliner Tageblatt, Nr. 554, 23 November 1927. Report on premiere in Constantinople.

Anon., 'Turks close German film', New York Times, 25 November 1927, Section 1, 6.

Original dustjacket for the 1927 London edition of Thea von Harbou's novel Metropolis. Design by Aubrey Hammond. Though based on the Futura robot of the film, the facial features in the front part of this dustjacket are masculine and brutish, wheras Lang's robot was decidedly feminine, and one of the most beautiful robots ever conceived.

Roseck, Erich, 'Toilettengeheimnisse des Berliner Films', Berliner Tageblatt, 29 November 1927.

Amunnategi, Francisco, 'Metropolis', La revue nouvelle, Nr. 36, November 1927.

Prevost, Jean, 'Metropolis' [Review], Le Crapouillot, Paris, November 1927.


Anon, 'Metropolis', Fränkischer Kurier, Nürnberg, 2 December 1927.

Buñuel, Louis, 'Metropolis', Gazeta Literaia de Madrid, [December] 1927-8 [Kaplan 85]. Reprinted in Cahiers du Cinéma, 1971; English translation in Aranda 1976 and Braudy 1978. Reproduced in Section 7.

Eisgruber, Heinz, 'Metropolis', Kulturwille, Nr. 12, December 1927.

Hieber, Hermann, 'Metropolis', Die Volksbühne, Nr. 9, December 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Reichsfilmblatt, Nr. 11, 1927.

Anon., 'Metropolis', Die Form, 2(2), 1927, 184-6.

Anon., Metropolis, Stockholm, circa 1927, 8p. Danish film program for the release of Metropolis. 4 images.

Balthasar, (Roland Schacht), 'Der Metropolisfilm der UFA', Der Kunstwart, No.5. 1927. [Kaplan 94]

Boje, Walter, 'Hinter den Kulissen des Metropolisfilms', Bibliothek der Unterhaltung und des Wissens, Bd. 10. Union Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart, 1927.

Breuer, Robert, 'Der Film der Tatsächlichkeit', Das Kunstblatt, 5, 1927.

Eggebrecht, Axel, 'Technik, Arbeit und Wissenschaft der Zukunft. Möglichkeiten eines Zukunftsfilm', Kulturwille, Nr.6, 1927.

E.S.P., 'Metropolis', Filmbesprechung, 1927. [Kaplan 86]

Fawcett, L'Estrange, Films Facts and Forecasts, G. Bles, London, 1927, 277p. Includes 5 Metropolis production stills.

Gürster, Eugen, 'Metropolis oder der Weltanschauungsfilm', Der Kunstwart. Deutscher Dienst am Geiste, 41(1), 1927-28, 43-6.

Harbou, Thea von, Metropolis, The Readers Library Publishing Co., London, [1927], 250p. English translation of novelisation. Translator not identified. Original dustjacket image by Aubrey Hammond, reproduced in Romains (1977) and Ackermann (1978).

----, 'Metropolis', in Kurt Mühsam, Film und Kino, C. Dünnhaupt Verlag, Dessau, 1927, 97. Extract from screenplay.

Harms, Rudolf, Kulturbedeutung und Kulturgefahren des Films, G. Braun, Karlsruhe, 1927.

Hunte, Otto, 'Der Baumeister von Metropolis', Illustrierter Film-Kurier, 1927. Reprinted in Stock (1992).

Lang, Fritz, 'Fritz Lang wehrt sich', Film-Bühne, Nr. 2, Winter 1927. Reprinted in Albert (1967).

Schacht, Roland, 'Der Metropolisfilm der Ufa', Der Kunstwart, Nr.5, 1927.

Seldes, Gilbert, 'Metropolis' [Review], New Republic, 1927.

Ziege, Felix, 'Metropolis und wir', Kulturwille, Nr.6, 1927.

1928 {Arranged alphabetically according to author hereafter}

Anon., 'Plakate für deutsche Filme in Frankreich' [German Film Posters in France], Zeitbilder, Berlin, January 1928, 5. Discusses the work of Boris Bilinsky, including reference to his Metropolis posters.

----, 'Metropolis', Cinéma, Paris, March 1928.

----, 'Metropolis - Great German Film', The Herald, Melbourne, 7 April 1928. Reproduced in Section 8.

----, 'Metropolis - Modern Progress Considered', The Argus, Melbourne, 9 April 1928. Reproduced in Section 8.

----, 'Metropolis', Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, 16 April 1928. Reproduced in Section 8.

----, 'Babel - Behind the Scenes', Everyone's, Sydney, 18 April 1928. Reproduced in Section 8.

----, 'Metropolis' (Review), Everyone's, Sydney, 18 April 1928. Reproduced in Section 8.

----, 'Claims Metropolis play', New York Times, 23 December 1928, Section I, 5. [Kaplan 100] This news items includes claims of plagiarism on the part of Lang and von Harbou with regards to Metropolis.

Beauplan, Robert Rousseau de, 'Metropolis', La Petite Illustration, Paris, 372, 3 March 1928, 12p. Special issue dedicated to the film. Images from the booklet available at Metropolis French Magazine. [Kaplan 102a]

F.A.R., 'Metropolis - A Great Picture', The Herald, Melbourne, 9 April 1928. Reproduced in Section 8.

Film Daily Year Book [1927], J.W. Alicoaste, New York, 1928.

Harbou, Thea von, Metropolis, Gallimard, Paris, 1928, 96p. French translation of the novelisation of the film. PDF copy of the novel available at French Novel 1928 page.

----, Metropolis : geautoriseerde vertaling van Maurits J. Vles, met 8 foto's naar de film, Nederlands Vitgevers-Maatschap, Amsterdam, 1928, 208p. Dutch translation of the novelisation, with 8 photographs from the film.

Herring, Robert, Films of the Year 1927-29, The Studio Limited, London.

Leprohon, Pierre, 'Le Cinéma allemand', La Revue Le Rouge et le Noir, Special Edition, 1928.

L'Imprimerie et La Pensée Moderne, Bulletin Officiel des Maitres Imprimeurs, Paris, 1928, 362p. Graphic design printers annual. Includes copy of Metropolis poster.

Leprohon, Pierre, 'Le Cinéma allemand', Cinéma: Cahier Special de la revue Le Rogue et le Noir, Paris, July 1928. [Kaplan 106]

Messel, Rudolph P., 'Metropolis', in This Film Business, Ernest Bern, London, 1928, 146-53.

Motion Picture News Booking Guide and Studio Directory [1927], Motion Picture News Inc., New York, 1928.

Wells, H.G., The Way the World is Going: Guesses and Forecasts of the Years Ahead, Erwin Benn Ltd., London, 1928, 179-89. Reprint of 1927 review of Metropolis.


Haensel, Karl, 'Um Metropolis', Der Kinematograph, Nr. 7, 9 January 1929.

Hunte, Otto, 'Metropolis - sketch of the city', dated 1929, Deutsches Filmmuseum, Frankfurt. Refer 'Otto Hunte: Architekt für den Film', Kinematograph, Nr.10, Deutsches Filmmuseum, Frankfurt, 1996.

'[Metropolis Robot]', Bauhaus-Zeitschrift, 1, 1929. Report on Oscar Schlemmer's use of the Metropolis robot in assisting with the design of masks for one of his operas.

Ramain, P., 'Fritz Lang et la synthèse ésotérique', Photo-Ciné, October 1929.

Schwob, René Schwob, Une mélodie silencieuse, Grasset, Paris, 1929.

Zaddach, Gerhard, Der literarische Film. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Lichtspielkunst, Inaugural Dissertation, Breslau, Berlin, 1929.


Arroy, Jean, 'La Femme sur la Lune', Cinémagazine, Paris, 6, June 1930, 16-21. [Kaplan 117]

H.P., 'Frau im Mond', Der Bildwart, 1, January 1930. [Kaplan 119]

'Metropolis' [Advertisement], La Esfera, October-December 1930.

Rotha, Paul, The Film Till Now, London, 1930. General overview of the film industry, with reference to the German Expressionist movement and the film Metropolis. [Kaplan 120]


Derain, Lucie, 'Les Affiches de cinema - polychromie pour blancs et noirs', Arts et métiers graphiques, 15 March 1931, no.22, 201-5.

Medina, Paul, 'Der deutsche Film in Frankreich. Zur Psychologie der Mißverständnisse', Der Querschnitt, 6, July 1931.


Anon., 'Metropolis im Palace', Kinematograph, 3 August 1932, 3. report on re-release of Metropolis in Berlin.

Hunter, William, 'Metropolis', Scrutiny of Cinema, Wishart, London, 1932, 24-5. [Kaplan 128]


Brigitte Helm - Il Racconto della sua Vita ed i Suoi Film, Supplemento Mensile a Cinema-Illustrazione, Milano, February 1933, 36p. Special supplement devoted to Brigitte Helm. Includes an interview with comments upon making Metropolis. These are translated into English on Herzog (1994).

Jünger, Ernst and Schultz, Edmund (ed.), Die veränderte Welt. Eine Bilderfibel unserer Zeit [The Transformed World - A Picture Primer of Our Time], W.G. Korn, Breslau, 1933. Metropolis is discussed in the 'Einleitung' [Prelude].

Rotha, Paul, Celluloid: The Film Today, Longman, Green, London, 1933, 230-2.


Forrest, David, 'Exiled German here to direct film marvels', World Telegram, New York, 14 June 1934. [Kaplan 133]


Kalbus, Oskar, Vom Verden Deutscher Filmkunst, Part 1: Der Stummfilm [The Development of German Cinematic Art - Part 1: Silent Movies], Altona, 1935. [Kaplan 135] A collection of 200 cigarette cards and postcards, sizes 3.5 x 5.5 inches and 5 x 7 inches. Includes some Metropolis cards.


Anon., 'Fury is Fritz Lang's First American Film', Post, New York, 29 May 1936. [Kaplan 136]

Holl, W., Gustav Frölich, Kunstler und Mensch, Berlin, 1936. Frölich played the starring role of Freder Fredersen in the movie Metropolis.

Taussig, Hans, Entschleierte Filmwelt, Saturn, Wien, 1936. Contains the following chapters dealing with the filming of Metropolis: Chapter VI - Nocturno in Staaken, 63-76; Chapter VII - Der Todessprung, 79-99; Chapter VIII - Die Wasserkatastrophe, 91-101.

Weinberg, Herman G., 'Metropolis', Jewish Times, Baltimore, 34(10), 10 July 1936. This article is critical of H.G. Wells' assessment of the film Metropolis.

Wells, H.G., 'Rules of Thumbs for Things to Come', New York Times, 12 April 1936, section IX, 4. Includes a copy of Wells' memo to the 'Things to Come' film crew. Quote: '...As a general rule you may take it that whatever Lang did in Metropolis is the exact contrary of what we want done here.'


Anon., 'Metropolis' (Review), World Telegram, New York, 24 April 1937. Review upon the re-release of the film in America.

Franju, Georges, 'Le Style de Fritz Lang', Cinématographe, No.1, p.5 et 6, March 1937.

Jahier, Valerio, '42 Ans de Cinéma', Le Rôle intellectuel du Cinéma, Société des Nations, Cahier 3, Paris, 1937, 13-151.


Koch, H., Heinrich George, Berlin, 1940. George played the role of the foreman Grot in the movie Metropolis.


Anon., 'Fritz Lang', World Telegram, New York, 11 June 1941. [Kaplan154]


Kriegk, Otto, Der deutsche Film im Spiegel der Ufa. 25 Jahre Kampf und Vollendung, Ufa-Buchverlag, Berlin, 1943.

Pollock, Channing, Harvest of My Years - An Autobiography, Bobbs-Merrill, New York, 1943, 232-4. Includes a description of Pollock's editorial work on Metropolis during 1927. Quote reproduced at 'Quotes, Comments & Reminiscences' section.


Weinberg, Herman G., 'An Index to the Creative Works of Fritz Lang', Sight and Sound special supplement, Index series no.5, February 1946. [Kaplan 166]


Eisner, Lotte, 'Notes sur le style de Fritz Lang', La Revue de Cinéma, Paris, 2nd series, 5, 1 February 1947, 22-4. [Kaplan 168]

Hardy, Forsyth (ed.), Grierson on Documentary, Collins, London, 1947.

Kracauer, Siegfried, From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1st edition, 1947. 2nd edition published 1969. [Kaplan 169] Kracauer sees Lang's film as a precursor to National Socialism (Nazism).


Eisner, Lotte, 'The German Films of Fritz Lang', The Penguin Film Review, 6, April 1948.

Gesek, Ludwig, 'Fritz Lang: Suggestion und Stimmung', Gestalter der Filmkunst, von Asta Nielsen bis Walt Disney, Vienna, 1948, 79-94. [Kaplan 171]

Wollenberg, H.H., Fifty Years of German Film, Falcon Press, London, 1948. [Kaplan 175]


Granich, Tom, 'Fritz Lang', Ferrania, Milan, August 1950, 27-8. [Kaplan 179]

Lindgren, Ernest, The Art of the Film: An Introduction to Film Appreciation, Allen & Unwin, London, 1950, 242p.

Nelson, W.R., 'Metropolis - Program Notes', Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1950-1.


Anon., 'Fritz Lang: Director of Directors': Filmregisseur in Zwei Erdteilen und drei Landern', Mannheimer Morgan, 29 November 1952. [Kaplan 193]

Eisner, Lotte, 'Handling of Crowds - Metropolis 1926', L'Écran Démoniaque (The Haunted Screen), André Bonne, Paris, 1952, 223-36. [Kaplan 194a] Re-issued in an expanded English version during 1969.

Jeanne, Rene and Ford, Charles, Histoire encyclopédique du Cinéma. Volume 2: Le Cinéma Muet, Paris, 1952. [Kaplan 197]

Holst, N.v., 'Metropolis 1952. Alte deutsche Stummfilme in Paris', Frankfurter Allgmeine Zeitung, 27 September 1952.

Werner, Gosta, 'Metropolis och Fritz Lang', Biografbladet, Stockholm, 1952, 28-32. [Kaplan 200]


Autera, Leonardo, 'Il Parabola di Fritz Lang', Cinema, Rome, 9, 15 January 1954. [Kaplan 209]


Eisner, Lotte (L.H.E), Die dämonische Leinwand. Die Blütezeit des deutschen Films, Der neue Film Verlagsgesellschaft Feldt & Co., Wiesbaden-Bieberich, 1955.

Sadoul, Georges, Histoire de l'Art du Cinéma des origines à nos jours, Flammarion, Paris, 1955.


Fraenkel, Heinrich, Unsterblicher Film: Von der Magica bis zum Tonfilm, Kindler, Munich, 1956, 140-3. [Kaplan 222]

Hart, H., 'Fritz Lang Today', Films in Review, 7(6), June-July 1956, 261-3. [Kaplan 553]


Sadoul, Georges, Geschichte der Filmkunst. Erweiterte deutsche Ausgabe von Hans Winge, Schönbrunn-Verlag, Vienna, 1957.


Patalas, Enno, 'Fritz Lang - Endstation 'Indisches Grabmal'?', Kirche und Film, 10, 11 October 1958. [Kaplan 241]

Siclier, J. and A.S. Labarthe, Images de la Science-Fiction, 7e=Art, Editions du Cerf, Paris, 1958, 140p.


Domarchi, Jean and Rivette, Jacques, 'Entretien avec Fritz Lang', Cahiers du Cinéma, Paris, September 1959, 1-10. [Kaplan 557]

Douchet, Jean, 'L'Œuvre de Fritz Lang à la Cinémathèque: Le Piège considéré comme l'un des beaux-arts, Arts, Paris, 1 July 1959. [Kaplan 245]

Franju, Georges, 'Le Style de Fritz Lang', Cahiers du Cinéma, Paris, 100, November 1959, 16-22. [Kaplan 246]

Frews, Berta, Heinrich George, Hamburg, 1959. Biography of actor who played Grot in Metropolis.

Ihering, H., Von Reinhardt bis Brecht, volume 2, Aufbau, East Berlin, 1959, 523-4. [Kaplan 92] Includes copy of Ihering's 1927 review of Metropolis.

Luft, Herbert, 'Erich Pommer. Part Two', Films in Review, New York, November 1959, 518-33. Pommer was the producer of Metropolis for Ufa. [Kaplan 248]


De Laura, David, 'Notes on Lang's Metropolis', in A. Lennig (ed.), Film Notes of the Wisconsin Film Society, Film Society Press, Madison, 1960, 36-7. [Kaplan 259a]

Kettelhut, Erich, 'Erinnerungen [Reminiscences]', unpublished manuscript, c.1960, Archiv Stiftung Deutsche Kinemathek, Berlin. Kettelhut, an artist and set designer, was one of the production design team on the film, creating and refining many of the cityscapes and underground sets which made the film so memorable. Refer Neumann (1994) for a discussion of his work and reproductions of many of his preliminary sketches for the film. Some of these are reproduced at Erich Kettelhut 'Metropolis' Drawings.

Luft, Friedrich, 'Ein Expressionist an der Kamera', Die Welt, Hamburg, 3 December 1960. [Kaplan 264]

Seton, Marie, Sergei M. Eisenstein, Grove Press, New York, 1960. Includes details of Eisenstein's visit to the set of Metropolis in 1926, where he observed the filming of the 'swinging camera' scene.


Domarchi, Jean, 'Avec M, Le Maudit, Fritz Lang en 1932 Annonçait la Destinée de L'Allemagne', Arts, Paris, 819, 26 April - 2 May 1961, 7. [Kaplan 280]


Dean, Peter, 'Metropolis', Sight and Sound, 1962.

Gregor, Ulrich, and Patalas, Enno, 'Deutschland: Expressionismus und Neue Sachlichkeit', Geschichte des Films, Sigbert Mohn, Gutersloh, 1962, 65-8. [Kaplan 296]

Lang, Fritz, 'On the Problems of Today', Films and Filming, London, 8(9), June 1962, 20-1. [Kaplan 565]

Pommer, Erich, Reminiscences, manuscript, 1962.

'The Man whp made Metropolis' [Part 1], Spacemen: The World's Only Space-Movie Magazine, January 1962, 66p.

Tyler, Parker, Classics of the Foreign Film, Bonanza, New York, 1962, 38-41.

Werth, German, 'Fritz Langs Metropolis: Zum Marmorhaus-Jubilaum', Der Tagesspiegel, West Berlin, 31 March 1962. [Kaplan 306]


Ackerman, F.J., 'Metropolis, Langsville, 2026', The Reel Scene, 2(111), 1, December 1963.

Anon., Retrospektive Fritz Lang: Dokumentation, Verband der deutschen Filmklubs, Bed Ems, 1964. [Kaplan 332]

Courtade, François, Fritz Lang, Le Terrain Vague, Paris, 1963, 29-36. [Kaplan 308]

Harbou, Thea von, Metropolis, Ace Books, New York, 1963, 222p. Series - An Ace Science Fiction Classic, F-246. Based on the 1927 English-language London edition. Preface by F.J. Ackermann. This edition translated into Spanish in 1977.

Luft, Herbert, 'Karl Freund', Films in Review, New York, February 1963. Freund was one of the cinematographers on the film, along with Günther Rittau. [Kaplan 310]

Moullet, Luc, Fritz Lang, Series: Cinéma d'Aujourd'hui, Seghers, Paris, 1963, 223p. [Kaplan 311] Second edition published in 1970.

Regel, Helmut and Heinz Steinberg, 'Filmprotokolle: Sequenzbeschreibung in: Der deutsche Stummfilm, zusammengestellt von Helmut Regel und Heinz Steinberg', Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Filmfragen an der Universität, Köln, 1963.

Sarris, Andrew, 'Fritz Lang', Film Culture, New York, Spring 1963. [Kaplan 312]


Eibel, Alfred, Fritz Lang, Présence du Cinéma, Paris, 1964, 223p. [Kaplan 314]

Eibel, Alfred, and Mourlet, Michel, Fritz Lang: Choix de Textes, Présence du Cinéma, Paris, 1964.

Lee, Raymond, A Pictorial History of Hollywood Nudity, Merit Books, Camerarts Publishing Company, Chicago, 1964, 127p.

Schröder, Peter, 'Ornament und Ideologie: Zu Einer Fritz Lang Retrospektive in Bad Ems', Film, 8, June-July 1964. [Kaplan 329]

Schütte, Wolfram, 'Kolportage, Stillisierung, Realismus, Anmerkungen zum Werk Fritz Langs von den Spinnen bis zu dem 'Testament des Dr. Mabuse', Filmstudio, Frankfurt, 44, September 1964. [Kaplan 330]

Spacemen - The World's Only Space-Movie Magazine, Nos. 6-8, 1964. Includes a 3-part series on Metropolis. Part 3 states 'To be continued', but no additional part appeared.


Berg, Gretchen, 'La Nuit Viennoise: Une Confession de Fritz Lang. 1', Cahiers du Cinéma, Paris, 169, August 1965, 42-61. [Kaplan 536] See also Berg (1966) for Part 2 of this comprehensive interview with Fritz Lang.

Fielding, Raymond, The Technique of Special Effects Cinematography, Hastings House, New York, 1965, 369p. See also 3rd edition, London, 1982.

Freund, Rudolf, 'Zwischen Kunst und Kolportage', Filmspiegel, East Berlin, 24, 1 December 1965. [Kaplan 336]

Hollman, Reimar, 'Fritz Lang: Regisseur ohne Engagement', Film, East Berlin, 3(12), December 1965, 27-32. [Kaplan 338]

Huaco, George A., The Sociology of Film Art, Basic Books, New York, 1965. [Kaplan 339]

Martin, Marcel, 'Metropolis', Cinéma, Paris, Nr. 100, September 1965.

Schmidt, Eckart, 'Fritz Lang 75 Jahre alt', Süddeutsche Zeitung, Munich, 4 December 1965, 35. [Kaplan 346]


Bellour, Raymond, 'Sur Fritz Lang', Critique, 226, March 1966. [Kaplan 351]

Berg, Gretchen 'La Nuit viennoise: Une Confession de Fritz Lang. 2', Cahiers du Cinéma, Paris, September 1966. [Kaplan 538] See also Berg (1965).

[Metropolis], The Classic Film Collector, 15, Summer 1966. Includes a poster advertisement for the Griggs Moviedrome release of Metropolis in America.

Pieyre de Mandiargues, Andre, 'L'Écran démoniaque', Cinéma, Paris, 100, 1966, 64-107. [Kaplan 352]

Pratt, George C., 'Metropolis', in Spellbound in Darkness: Readings in the history and criticism of the silent film, University of Rochester, New York, 1966.

Rhode, Eric, 'Fritz Lang: the German Period 1919-1933', Tower of Babel, London, 1966, 83-105. Makes reference to the use of the 'Tower of Babel' motif in the film Metropolis. [Kaplan 353]


Agel, Henri, Les Grandes Cinéastes que je propose, Paris, 1967, 67-74. [Kaplan 354]

Albrecht, Gerd, Retrospektive Fritz Lang. Dokumentation. Teil I: Die Zeit und die Filme bis zum Jahre 1933 in Deutschland, Verband der Deutschen Filmclubs, 1967, Gruppe 6/1-24 - Metropolis.

Clarens, Carlos, An Illustrated History of the Horror Films, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1967.

Jensen, Paul, 'Metropolis', Film Heritage, Winter 1967-8, 22-8. [Kaplan 366] Outlines cuts for the American version.

Ministro, Maurizio del, 'Introduzione a Lang Expressionista', Litteratura, no.85-87, Gennaio-Giugno / De Luce, Rome, 1967.


El cine de Fritz Lang, Era, Mexico, 1968, 286p.

Gay, Peter, Weimar Culture, Penguin, London, 1968, 222p. Includes a scathing criticism of Metropolis.

Kael, Pauline, Kiss Kiss Bang Bang, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1968, 309-10.


Bogdanovich, Peter, Fritz Lang in America, Praeger, New York, 1969.

Eisner, Lotte, The Haunted Screen: Expressionism in the German Cinema and the influence of Max Reinhardt, 3rd ed., Berkeley, 1969. [Kaplan 194a]

Higham, Charles and Greenberg, Joel, 'Fritz Lang Interview', in The Celluloid Muse, Henry Regney, New York, 1969.

Jensen, Paul M., The Cinema of Fritz Lang, A. S. Barnes, New York, 1969, 223p. [Kaplan 379]


Baxter, J., Science Fiction in the Cinema, 1970.

Grafe, Frieda, 'Er erfand den Countdown: Zum 80 Geburtstag Von Fritz Lang am 5 December', Süddeutsche Zeitung, 5-6 December 1970, 291. [Kaplan 391]

Haas, Willy, 'Fritz Lang wird 80 Jahre alt', Die Welt, Hamburg, 5 December 1970. [Kaplan 393]

Harmssen, Henning, 'Von Siegfried bis Mabuse. Filmklassiker Fritz Lang zum 80. Geburtstag', Stuttgarter Zeitung, 4 December 1970. [Kaplan 394]

Joannides, Paul, 'Aspects of Fritz Lang', Cinema, London, 6/7, August 1970, 5-9. [Kaplan 395]

Moullet, Luc, Fritz Lang. Choix de textes et propos de Fritz Lang; points de vue critiques et témoignages; bio-filmographie; bibliographie; 60 documents iconographiques, 2.ed., Seghers, Paris, 1970, 168p. First edition published 1963.

Patalas, Enno, 'Prophet im Ausland', Die Zeit, Hamburg, 25 November 1970. [Kaplan 397]

Wiegand, Wilfried, 'Der Regisseur von M', Frankfurter Allgemaine Zeitung, 5 December 1970, 282. [Kaplan 402]


Buñuel, Louis, 'Textes (Metropolis)', Cahiers du Cinéma, 223, August-September 1971. Reprinted from Gazeta Literaia, 1927. Reproduced in English in Section 7.

Lang, Fritz, 'Selbstdarstellung: Fritz Lang', Frankfurter Rundschau, 15 May 1971. [Kaplan 581] Interview with the 80 year old Lang. Quote: "...Metropolis was the man of a future that had already begun. With Metropolis I began to think politically for the first time. Metropolis actually turned out to be something different from what I intended. That's why I don't like the film much."

Wendevogel, N., 'Scharf und Schnell: Fritz Lang', Der Tagesspiegel, 1 July 1971, 4. [Kaplan 582]


Elderfeild, J., 'Metropolis', Studio International, 183, 1972, 196-9.

Friedrich, Otto, Before the Deluge: A Portrait of Berlin in the 1920s, Harper & Row, New York, 1972, 386-7.

Johnson, William (ed.), Focus on the Science Fiction Film, Prentice-Hall, Engelwood Cliffs, 1972.

Kauffmann, Stanley and Henstall, Bruce (eds.), American Film Criticism, Liveright Press, New York, 1972, 184-90. [Kaplan 412] Includes reprints of three 1927 reviews of Metropolis. Reproduced in Section 7.

Lang, Fritz, Focus on Fritz Lang: a fascinating interview with the respected German-U.S. film-maker, Center for Cassette Studies, 1972, 1 cassette, 58 min.

Sadoul, Georges, Dictionary of Films, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1972, 217-8.

Steinbrunner, Chris and Goldblatt, Burt, 'Metropolis', Cinema of the Fantastic, Galahad Books, New York, 1972, 15-32.

Wells, H.G., 'The Silliest Film: Will Machines Make Robots of Men?', in Harry M. Geduld (ed.), Authors on Film, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1972. Reprint of 1927 review of Metropolis. Reproduced in Section 7.


Casty, Alan, 'Fritz Lang: Expressionist Epic and Expressive Realism', Development of the Film: An Interpretive History, Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich, New York, 52-6. [Kaplan 420]

Eisner, Lotte, The Haunted Screen, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1973, 223-36. [Kaplan 194a]

Harbou, Thea von, Metropolis, Ace Books, New York, [1973], 222p. Series - Science Fiction from the Great Years, 52831. Based on the 1927 English-language London edition. Preface by F.J. Ackermann. Reprint of 1963 Ace edition.

Lang, Fritz, Metropolis, a film by Fritz Lang, Simon and Schuster, New York, and Lorrimer, London, 1973, 131p. Series - Classic Film Scripts, 39. Artificially constructed screenplay of the film Metropolis, based on the novel by Thea von Harbou and a viewing of a modern, edited copy of the film. Includes English language titles and extracts from the original novel. This is not a copy of the original script by Thea von Harbou, or Fritz Lang's working script. Whilst Von Harbou's script survives, only a single page of Lang's working script is extant. See under 1925 of this bibliography for further information.

Lee, Walt, Reference Guide to Fantastic Films - Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror, Chelsea-Lee, Los Angeles, 1973, 3 volumes.

Mitry, Jean, Histoire du Cinéma: Art et Industrie, volume 3, 1923-30, Paris, 1973, 202-7. [Kaplan 426]

Petley, Julian, 'The Films of Fritz Lang: The Cinema of Destiny', Master's thesis, University of Exeter, 1973. [Kaplan 427]

Pratt, George C., 'Metropolis', in Spellbound in Darkness: A History of the Silent Film, revised edition, New York Graphic Society, Greenwich, 1973, 386-89. First published 1966.

Robinson, David, The History of World Cinema, Stein and Day, New York, 1973, 96-7.


Dadoun, Roger, 'Metropolis: Mother City - 'Mittler' - Hitler', Revue Francaise de Psychanalyse, 1 January 1974. See also Dadoun (1984) for a development of this article, and Dadoun (1986) for an English translation.

Gray, P., Weimar Culture - The Outsider as Insider, Harmondsworth, London, 1974. First published 1968. very critical of the film Metropolis.

Lang, Fritz, 'Fritz Lang Seminar', Dialogue on Film, American Film Institute, 3(5), April 1974.

Kracauer, Siegfried, From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1974, 5th printing. [Kaplan 169] First edition 1947.

Williams, Alan, 'Structures of Narrativity in Fritz Lang's Metropolis, Film Quarterly, 27(4), Berkeley, Summer 1974, 17-24. [Kaplan 441]


Berger, Erich, Heinrich George in Film seiner Zeit, Wiesbaden, 1975.

Boost, C., Fritz Lang, Scoop, 11(1), February 1975, 17-22.

De Laet, Danny and Magiels, Willy, Fritz Lang: (On)Schuld En Boete Een Uitgave Van Film International Antwerpen / Rotterdam Ter Gelegenheid Van De Hulde Aan Fritz Lang Antwerpen / Rotterdam 21 Februari -1 Maart 1975, H. Duterne, 1975, 85p.

Durrenmatt, Dieter, 'Fritz Lang - Der missverstandene Regisseur', Internationales Archiv fur Filmgeschichte Switzerland, 12 December 1975. [Kaplan 444]

Garbicz, Adam, Cinema, the Magic Vehicle: A guide to its achievement, Scarecrow Press, New Jersey, 1975, vol.1, 122-3.

Harmssen, Henning, 'Des Teufels Traumfabrik: Aus den Sitzungsprotokollen der Ufa 1932 bis 1941', Saarbrucken Zeitung, 8 May 1975. [Kaplan 446]

Harbou, Thea von, Metropolis, Gregg Press, Boston, 1975, xv, 250 p., [8] leaves of plates. Series - The Gregg Press Science Fiction Series. Reprint of the 1927 edition as published by the Readers Library Pub. Co., London.

Kracauer, Siegfried, 'The Mass Ornament', New German Critique, 5, Spring 1975, 67-76. Discusses the cultural and political implications of Fritz Lang's ornamental style in Metropolis.

Lang, Fritz and Phillips, Gene D., 'Fritz Lang: An Interview', Focus on Film, London, 20, Spring 1975, 43-51. [Kaplan 586]

Wells, H.G., Things to Come, Gregg Press, Boston, 1975, 13.


Annan, David, Robot: The Mechanical Monster, Bounty Books, 1976, 111p.

Anon., Fritz Lang, Filmoteca Nacional de Espana, Barcelona, 1976.

Arnanda, Francis (David Robinson trans.), 'Metropolis (1927 Review)', in Louis Buñuel: A Critical Biography, Da Capo Press, 1976, 266-8. Includes an English translation of the original 1927 review.

Bletter, Rosemarie, 'Metropolis reduite', Archiithese, 18, Niederteufen, 1976, 22p.

Blumberg, Hans C., 'Kino der Angst', Die Zeit, Hamburg, 13 September 1976. [Kaplan 455]

Boost, C., 'Metropolis - Wat doeteen ingenieur met een infantiel scenario van zijn vrouw', Skoop, Amsterdam, March 1976, 18-19.

Coombs, Richard, 'Metropolis', Monthly Film Bulletin, 43[507), April 1976, 91.

Eisner, Lotte H. (translated by Gertrud Mander and edited by David Robinson), Fritz Lang, Secker and Warburg, London, 1976, 416p. [Kaplan 478] Extract referring to Metropolis available at the Rev. Quinn's Metropolis web site

Janse, Peter W. and Wolfram Schütte (eds.), Fritz Lang, Carl Hanser, München, 1976, 175p. [Kaplan 461] Second edition 1987. With contributions from

H.H., 'Kühle Reserve Empfohlen: Sie sich der Vorstand der Ufa von Fritz Lang distanzierte', Stuttgarter Zeitung, 6 August 1976. [Kaplan 463]

Krebs, Albin, 'Fritz Lang, Film Director Noted for M, Dead at 85', New York Times, 3 August 1976. [Kaplan 465]

Kyle, David, A Pictorial History of Science Fiction, Hamlyn, London, 1976.

Lang, Fritz and Phillips, Gene D., 'Fritz Lang on Metropolis' (Interview), in T.R. Atkins (ed.), Science Fiction Films, Monarch Film Studies, Monarch/Simon, New York, 1976, 19-21; extract reproduced in The Village Voice, 16 August 1976. [Kaplan 586]

Rapisardi, Giusi, 'Die Stadt und ihr Doppelgänger. Von Metropolis zu King Kong',Archithese, 17, Niederteufen, 1976, 29-36.

Tulloch, John, 'Genetic Structuralism and the Cinema: A Look at Fritz Lang's Metropolis', Australian Journal of Screen Theory, Kensington, 1, 1976, 3-50. [Kaplan 470] Examines Metropolis against the background of the German Expressionist movement.

Ulrich, Jörg, 'Der Mann mit den 1000 Augen', Münchner Merkur, 4 August 1976. [Kaplan 471]

Wiegand, Wilfried, 'Der Mensch im Ornament. Zum Tod des Filmregisseurs Fritz Lang', Frankfurter Allgemaine Zeitung, 4 August 1976. [Kaplan 474]


Basset, Veronique and Sotiauz, Daniel, 'Deux textes, pour servir une problématique, L'Ouvrier dans le cinéma allemand des annés 20', Revue Belge du Cinéma, Brussels, 5-6 June 1977, 6-13. [Kaplan 476a]

Bayer, William, 'Metropolis' in The Great Movies, Ridge Press Books, New York, 1977.

Diederichs, Helmut H. (ed.), Kritiken und Aufsatze zum Film, Carl Hanser, Munich, 1977, 184-6. [Kaplan 82]

Divey, Steve, 'Metropolis: the first great science fiction film', Vector, 83, September/October 1977, 25-6.

Eisner, Lotte H. (translated by Gertrud Mander and edited by David Robinson), Fritz Lang, Oxford University Press, New York, 1977, 416p. [Kaplan 478]

'From Metropolis to Star Wars - 50 Years of Science Fiction Films', Film Review, December 1977.

Harbou, Thea von, Metropolis, Martinez Roca, Barcelona, 1977, 189p. Series - Coleccion Super Ficcion, 16. Translated by Amparo Garcia Burgos, from the 1963 Ace edition.

'Metropolis', Space Wars - The Magazine of Science Fantasy, October 1977, 8-11.

Romains, Jules, 'Metropolis', L'Avant-Scène du Cinéma, Paris, 1 December 1977, 29-30

Rovin, Jeff, Movie Special Effects, A.S. Barnes, New York, 1977.

Scholes, Robert and Rabkin, Eric S., Science Fiction: History, Science, Vision, Oxford University Press, New York, 1977, 102-3.

Thomson, David, 'Lang's Ministry', Sight and Sound, 46(2), Spring 1977, 114-6. [Kaplan 483]

Tuch, Ronald, 'Themes and structures in the cinema of Fritz Lang', Thesis, New York University, 1977, 347p.

Tulloch, John, 'Mimesis or Marginality? Collective Belief and German Expressionism', in Conflict and Control in the Cinema: A Reader in Film and Society, Macmillan, Melbourne, 1977, 37-68.


Armour, Robert A., Fritz Lang, Twayne, Boston, 1978, 198p. [Kaplan 485]

Braudy, Leo and Dickstein, Morris (eds.), Great Film Directors, Oxford University Press, New York, 1978, 590-2. Includes an English translation of Louis Buñuel's Metropolis review of 1927. Reproduced in Section 7.

Harbou, Thea von, Metropolis - Der Roman zu Fritz Langs utopischem Film, Verlag Ullstein, Ungekurzte Ausg., Frankfurt am Main, 1978, 223p. First German reissue of the original 1926 novelisation of the film. With 16 illustrations.

Holton, Scott, Skotak, Robert and Pitkin, Lem, 'Metropolis', Future, 5, October 1978, 30-4.

Malone, R., The Robot Book, Harvest, New York, 1978, 160p.

Roth, Lane, 'Metropolis: The Lights Fantastic: Semiotic Analysis of Lighting Codes in Relation to Character and Themes', Literature / Film Quarterly, Fall 1978, 432-6. [Kaplan 490a]

Sheckley, Robert, Futuropolis: Impossible Cities of Science Fiction and Fantasy, A&W Visual library, 1978.


Gittleman, Sol, 'Fritz Lang's Metropolis and Georg Kaiser's "Gas": Film, Literature, and the Crisis of Technology', Die Unterrichtspraxis (For the Teaching of German), 12(2), 1979.

'Metropolis', Starlog, Tokyo, Japan, 11, November 1979. Photos plus fold-out.

'Metropolis' [Review], Cinema, 17(3), March 1979, 20-1.

Ott, Frederick W., The Films of Fritz Lang, Citadel Press, Secaucus, New Jersey, 1979, 287p. [Kaplan 493]

Willis, Don, 'Fritz Lang: Only Melodrama', Film Quarterly, Berkeley, 33(2), Winter 1979-80, 2-11. [Kaplan 495b]


American Film, [Metropolis robotrix cover], June 1980. From the collection of Forrest Ackerman.

Bergstrom, Janet Lynn, 'The logic of fascination: Fritz Lang and cinematic convention', Ph.D. thesis, UCLA (University of California - Los Angeles), 1980, 265p.

Mendez-Leite, Fernando, Fritz Lang: su vida y su cine, Daimon, Madrid, 1980, 459p.

Prawer, S., Caligari's Children: The Film as Tale of Terror, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1980, 209.

Seeßlen, Georg, Kino des Utopischen, Rowohlt, Reinbek, (rororo-Sachbuch Nr. 7334) 1980, 90-101.

Tulloch, John, 'Narrative structure ideology in Murnau's Nosferatu - another start from Propp', Australian Journal of Screen Theory, 5-6, 1980, 138-62. Examines Nosferatu according to Vladimir Propp's principles and contrasts its narrative structure with Metropolis.


Brunetta, Gian Piero, 'Luce e tenebre di Metropolis', in G.P.B., Cinema perduto. Appunti di viaggio tra film e storia, Feltrinelli economica, Milano, 1981.

Brunius, J.B., 'Metropolis', Cinema Novo, III(15-16), January-February 1981, 79-80.

Huyssen, Andreas, 'The Vamp and the Machine: Technology and Sexuality in Fritz Lang's Metropolis', New German Critique: An Interdisciplinary Journal of German Studies, 24-25, Fall-Winter 1981-2, 221-237.

Jenkins, Stephen (ed.), Fritz Lang: the image and the look, British Film Institute, London, 1981, 173p.

Jensen, Paul M., 'Metropolis: The Film and the Book', in A. Sinclair (ed.), Metropolis, Lorrimer, London, 1981, 7.

Kaplan, E. Ann, Fritz Lang: a guide to references and resources, G.K. Hall, Boston, 1981, 488p. Comprehensive annotated bibliography, with numerous references to Metropolis. An indispensible resource.

Kobal, J., Great film stills of the German silent era: 125 stills from the Stiftung Deutsche Kinemathek, Dover, New York, 1981. Introduction by Lotte H. Eisner.

Maibohm, Ludwig, Fritz Lang: seine Filme, sein Leben, W. Heyne, Munchen, 1981, 78-105.

Mellenkamp, P., 'Oedipus and the Robot in Metropolis', Enclitic, Minneapolis, 1, Spring 1981, 20-42.

'Metropolis', in Magill's Survey of Cinema. Volume 2: Silent films, Salem Press, Engelwood Cliffs, 1981, 733-744.

Tulloch, John, Legends on the screen: the Australian narrative cinema 1919-1929, Australian Film Institute & Currency Press, Sydney, 1981.


Barlow, John D., German Expressionist Film, Twayne Publishers, Boston, 1982, 118-133.

Dürrenmatt, Dieter, Fritz Lang, Leben und Werk, Museum des Films, Basel, 1982, 110-1.

Fröhlich, Gustav, Waren das Zeiten: Mein Film-Heldenleben, Herbig, Münich, 1982. Autobiography.

Lloyd, Ann (ed.), 70 Years At The Movies, From Silent Films To Today's Screen Hits, Crescent Books, 1982, 510p.

'Metropolis', in From Quasimodo to Scarlett O'Hara: a National Board of Review Anthology, 1920-1940, F. Ungar, New York, 1982, 86-8.

Prouty, Howard H., 'Metropolis', in Frank N. Magill (ed.), Magill's Survey of Cinema. Silent Films, Bowker, Epping, 1982, vol.2, 733-44.

'Metropolis', in Movie Mint [Magazine], London, 1982.

'Metropolis', in Selected Film Criticism, 1921-30, Scarecrow Press, New Jersey, 1982, 192-3.

Posthumus, P., 'Metropolis' (Review), Skrien, Amsterdam, 119-120, Summer, 1982, 33.

Simsolo, Noël, Fritz Lang, Edilig, Paris, 1982, 32-6.


Agostinis, V., 'Lo stato del design', Segnocinema, III(6), January 1983, 35-7.

Brennicke, Ilona and Hembus, Joe, Klassiker des Deutschen Stummfilms 1910-1930, Goldman, Munich, 1983, 134-42.

Bronner, S.E., and Kellner, D. (eds.), Passion and Rebellion: The Expressionist Heritage, London, 1983.

Grace, Sherrill E., 'Fritz Lang and the "Paracinematic lives" of Gravity's rainbow', Modern Fiction Studies, 29(4), Winter 1983.

Hahn, Ronald M., and Volker Jansen, Lexikon des Science Fiction Films, Heyne, München, 1983 (Heyne-Buch Nr. 7236), 352-356.

Knight, David C., Robotics: Past, Present and Future, 1983, 122p.

Robots [Special Issue], Design Quarterly, 121, 1983. Includes article by Michael Webb, 'The Robots are Here! The Robots are Here!' which includes reference to Metropolis.

Schneider, R. and Buchman, Christopher, Movie Posters of the Silent Film Era to Colour, Stemmer House, 1983.

Sturm, Georges, 'Metropolis. Auf der Suche nach der verlorenen Szene', Bulletin CICIM, Nr. 5/6, November 1983. On the Munich reconstruction.

Yung, 'Metropoli' (Review), Variety, CCCXII(8), 21 September 1983, 28.


Anon., 'Metropolis - Press kit', The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and The Academy Foundation, 1984.

----, 'Metropolis, Metro, disco, Giorgio', Le Film Français, 6 July1984.

----, 'Cinecom Picks Up Lang's Metropolis', Variety, 315(11), 11 July1984.

----, 'Metropolis a pris des couleurs sur fond de rock', France-Soir, 7 August1984.

----, 'Metropolis von Fritz Lang in "New Wave" - Fassung', Der Tagesspiegel, 12 August 1984.

Beylie, Claude, 'Dédales de Metropolis', Cinématographe, Paris, 101, June 1984, 23-4.

Blanchet, Christian, 'Metropolis' [Review], Cinema, Paris, 307-8, July-August 1984, 33.

Borie, Bertrand, 'Entretien avec Giorgio Moroder, L'Écran fantastique, July-August 1984.

Caron-Lowins, Evelyne, 'Metropolis', Cinéma, Paris, 309, September 1984, 43.

Cieutat, B., 'Fritz Lang "Morodernise": ou, L'Art du détournement Metropolis', Positif, Paris, November 1984, 12-14.

Codelli, Lorenzo, 'Entretien avec Enno Patalas Conservateur de la Cinemathèque de Munich sur Metropolis et quelques....' (Interview), Positif, November 1984, 285, 15-20.

Dadoun, Roger, 'Metropolis: Mother City - 'Mittler' - Hitler', Psychanalyse entre chien et loup, Éditions Imago, Paris, 1984. Development of original 1974 article. See Dadoun (1986) for English translation.

Delloff, L., 'Metropolis' (Review), The Christian Century, 24 October 1984, 101, 995.

Del-Valle, David, 'West Coast premiere for reconstructed Metropolis', Film and Filming, 361, October 1984, 20.

Eisner, Lotte, Ich hatte einst ein schönes Vaterland - Memoiren Wunderhorn, Heidelberg, 1984.

Elliott, David, 'New life Scored into Metropolis', San Diego Union, 17 August 1984.

Elsaesser, Thomas, 'Metropolis', Monthly Film Bulletin, London, 60(611), December 1984, 363-4.

----, 'Innocence Restoried', Monthly Film Bulletin, London, December 1984, 365-6.

Everett, Rodd, 'Giorgio Moroder Scores a Silent Classic', Los Angeles Herald Examiner, 16 August 1984.

'Fritz Lang', Positif, 285, November 1984, 2-20.

Giacci, Vittorio, 'La risurrezione della forma' [Review], Filmcritic, 35(346), July 1984, 296-7.

Giesen, Rolf, Lexikon des phantastischen Films, Bd. 2. Ullstein Frankfurt/Main, Berlin, Wien, 1984 (Ullstein-Buch Nr. 36509), 84-105.

Guibert, Hervé, 'Metropolis', Le Monde, 8 August 1984.

Harbou, Thea von, Metropolis, Ullstein / Ozeanische Bibliothek, Frankfurt am Main, 1984, 204p. Forward by Herbert W. Franke. Reissue of 1926 novelisation of the film.

Hardy, Phil (ed.), 'Metropolis', in The Film Encyclopedia, Volume 2, Science Fiction: The Complete Film Sourcebook, William Morrow & Co., New York, 1984, 74-5.

Hoberman, J., 'Metropolis', The Village Voice, 21 August 1984

Insdorf, Annette, 'Metropolis', Le Matin, 16 May 1984.

----, 'Metropolis', New York Times, 5 August 1984.

Kauffmann, S., 'Top Secret!' (Review), The New Republic, 14 August 1984, 191, 232-3.

Keiner, Reinhold, Thea von Harbou und der deutsche Film bis 1933, Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim, 1984, 91-100. Second edition 1991.

Lloyd, Ann and Robinson, David (eds.), Movies of the Silent Years, Orbis, London, 1984.

Maslin, Janet, 'Metropolis', New York Times, 19 August 1984.

McCarthey, T., 'Moroder's redo of Metropolis sparks spirited Cannes talk', Variety, 16 May 1984, 315, 5-6.

'Metropolis' [Review], Première, Paris, 89, 1984.

'Metropolis' in Cinema, 82, September 1984. Dutch.

'Metropolis' in Ciné Revue, Paris, August 1984. French. 2 page poster.

'Metropolis - Version 84', L'Écran Fantastique, Paris, 47, 1984.

'Metropolis', Los Angeles Times, 5 October 1984, 4.

'Metropolis' [Review], Segnocinema, 4(15), November 1984, 75.

'Metropolis', Washington Post, 31 August 1984, B9.

Metropolis [Movie program], Tokyo, 1984, 20p, 21 x 27.5cm.

Moroder, Giorgio, 'Interview with Giorgio Moroder on new version of Metropolis', Starburst, 77, 1984.

Patalas, Enno, 'Que manque-t-il au Torso?', Positif, Nr. 285, November 1984.

Pede, Ronnie, 'Moroder dreunt Lang onderuit: Metropolis', Film en Televisie, 328, September 1984, 7-9.

Pollock, Dale, 'Metropolis', New Orleans Times Picayune, 27 May 1984, 14.

Rotondi, Cesar J., 'The 1984 review, the 1927 review: Fritz Lang, the maker of Metropolis', Films in Review, 35, October 1984, 464-9.

Sauvaget, D., 'Metropolis: Recontre Kitsch', Image et Son / Revue du Cinéma, Paris, 397, September 1984, 23.

Sll, Ed., 'Metropolis', Neue Zuricher Zeitung, 23 August 1985.

Strick, Philip, 'The Metropolis Wars: The City as Character in Science Fiction Films', in Danny Peary (ed.), Screen Flights / Screen Fantasies, Doubleday, Garden City, N.Y., 1984, 43-49.

Sturm, Georges, 'Für Hel ein Denkmal, kein Platz – "un rêve de pierre"', Bulletin CICIM, Nr. 9, November 1984.

Sutcliffe, Anthony, 'The Metropolis in the cinema', Metropolis, 1890-1940, London, 1984, 147-71.

Taylor, John Russell, 'Metropolis (film review)', Films and Filming, 363, December 1984, 41.

Urgosiková, B., 'Metropolis', in Christopher Lyon (ed.), The Macmillan Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers, Vol. 1., macmillan, London, 1984, 297-299.

Wiener, T., 'Oh, no, Giorgio', American Film, 9(7), May 1984, 8.

Willett, J., The Weimar Years: A Culture Cut Short, Thames & Hudson, London, 1984, 160p.


Ackeren, Robert van, 'Metropolis', Der Spiegel, 25 February 1985.

Anon., Giorgio Moroder's Metropolis von Fritz Lang. Press Kit, Metropol Filmverleih München 1985. Mit einem Interview mit Giorgio Moroder, Nachdruck aus dem Original Ufa Magazin, Sondernummer Metropolis von 1927.

----, 'Metropolis', [New filmprogram], Vienna, Nr. 8233, February 1985.

----, 'Metropolis', Filmfaust, 45, April-May 1985.

----, 'Metropolis', Filmprogramm Nr. 44, Uwe Wiedleroither, Stuttgart, 1985].

----, 'Metropolis', [Special issue of the 1927 Ufa Magazin. Sondernummer, on the occasion of the film's revival, 1 June 1985.

Aguilar, C., 'Metropolis', Casablanca, 47, March 1985, 48-9.

Andersson, S., 'Metropolis', Filmrutan, XXVIII(4), 1985, 31.

Autera, L., Metropolis: Moroder rilancia Lang' (review), Bianco e Nero, 46(1), January-March 1985, 90-3.

Bartetzko, Dieter, Zwischen Zucht und Ekstase. Zur Theatralik von NS-Architektur, Gebr. Mann, Berlin, 1985, 153-160.

Beylie, Claude, 'Actualités de Fritz Lang', L'Avant-Scène du Cinéma, 340, May 1985.

Benson, Michael, Vintage Science Fiction Films, 1896-1949, McFarland & Co., Jefferson, 210p.

Buchka, Peter, 'Metropolis', Süddeutsche Zeitung, 22 May 1985.

Cook, Pam, 'Fritz Lang', The Cinema Book, British Film Institute, London, 1985, 123-4.

Ehrlich, Lutz, 'Metropolis', Die Tageszeitung, 28 February 1985.

Eisenschitz, Bernhard, 'Metropolis, la Ufa et le cinéma allemand' in , Horst von Harbou et al., 1985.

Keen, Nicholas, Metropolis, Exeter Film Society, 1 June 1985. Includes a reproduction of the 1927 Metropolis Magazine by Wardour/Ufa.

Fritz Lang, Metropolis, Munchner Filmmuseum, Munchner Filmzentrum e.V., Munchen, 1985.

Fritz Lang mit Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten dargestellt von Michael Töteberg, Rowohlt, Reinbek, 1985, 53-61.

Giesen, Rolf, Special Effects, Edition Achteinhalb, Ebersberg, 1985, 36-39, 101-102.

Grafe, Frieda and Barzman, Luli, Fritz Lang, Rivages, Paris, 1985, 184p.

Graves, Barry, 'Metropolis', Saarbrücker Zeitung, 4 April 1985.

Harbou, Horst von et al., Metropolis: un film de Fritz Lang. Images d'un tournage, Le Centre, Paris, 1985, 143p. Series - Photo copies, 3e. Photographic reproductions of originals by Horst von Harbou. Published on the occasion of an exhibition held at the Centre National de la Photographie et de la Cinémathèque Francaise in 1985.

Harbou, Thea von, Metropolis, Ediciones Orbis, Barcelona, 1985, 188p. Series - Biblioteca de ciencia ficcion, 23.

Hutchison, David, 'Videolog: Restoring the classics', Starlog, 99, October 1985, 27-8.

Janczewski, Dirk, 'Metropolis', Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, 21 February 1985.

Jespersen, A., 'Giorgio Moroder - son of Metropolis', Kosmorama, 31(172), July 1985, 110-3.

Koll, Horst Peter, 'Metropolis', Film-Dienst, 5, 6 March 1985.

Laages, Michael, 'Metropolis', Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung, 22 February 1985.

Laberge, Yves, 'Le Retour de Metropolis: une idéologie subversive au service d'une autre', Études Littéraires, 18(1), Spring-Summer 1985, 135-54.

Lindblom, Steven, How to Build a Robot, Thomas Y. Crowell, 1985, 78p. Includes section on 'The False Maria Robot from Fritz Lang's Metropolis.'

Maibohm, Ludwig, Fritz Lang und seine Filme, 2. Aufl., W. Heyne, Munchen, 1985, 271p.

Manola, Franz, 'Metropolis', Die Presse, Vienna, 8 March 1985.

Mendelbaum, Howard, and Myers, Eric, Screen Deco: A Celebration of High Style in Hollywood, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1985, 209p.

'Metropolis' [Review], Filmfaust, 45, April-May 1985, 34.

'Metropolis', Photo, Paris, 214, July 1985. [8 page photo spread on Metropolis]

'Metropolis', Heavy Metal: The Adult Illustrated Fantasy Magazine, 7, July 1985.

Metzner, Jochen, 'Metropolis', Der Tagesspiegel, 24 February 1985.

Mikuz, Jure, Fritz Lang, Moderna galerija: Revija Ekran, Ljubljana, 1985, 162p.

Minden, Michael, 'The City in Early Cinema: Metropolis, Berlin and October', in Edward Timms and David Kelly (eds.), Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art, St Martin's Press, New York, 1985, 193-213.

Moroder, Giorgio, 'The songs of silence', Stills, 15, Dec-Jan 1984-5, 10-11. Moroder talks about his restoration of Metropolis.

Olive, J. -L., 'Les structures de l'enferement urbain, de Metropolis a Blade Runner', Cahiers de la Cinémathèque, 44, December 1985, 39-47.

Oms, Marcel, et al., 'Regards sur la science fiction',Cahiers de la Cinémathèque, 44, December 1985, 1-74.

Ozer, Jerome (ed.), 'Reviews of Metropolis', Film Review Annual, Film Review Publications, Engelwood, New Jersey, 1985, 880-6. Includes a compilation of reviews of the Moroder version of Metropolis.

Rehder, Mathes, 'Metropolis', Hamburger Abendblatt, 8 March1985.

Schütte, Wolfram, 'Metropolis', Frankfurter Rundschau, 26 February1985.

Starlog, Japan, 76, February 1985. With Metropolis posters and souvenir booklet.

Stempel, Hans, 'Metropolis', Epd Film, 3, March 1985.

Sturm, Georges, 'L'ombre d'un double ou la maman et la putain. (Sur les figures féminines dans Metropolis)', Cahiers de la Cinémathèque, 44, December 1985, 21-34. Analysis of the film and its sources, along with the women in the film and their doubles.

---- and Jean-Paul Morel, 'Metropolis ou cherchez la femme', Le Matin, 24 June 1985.

Töteberg, Michael, Fritz Lang: mit Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten, Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1985, 53-61.

Würker, Wolfgang, 'Metropolis', Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 26 February 1985.

Zoege, Bodo, 'Metropolis', Die Zeit, 29 March 1985.


Albrecht, Donald, Designing Dreams: Modern Architecture in the Movies, Thames and Hudson, London and New York, 1986, 153-7.

Bohm, Andrew, 'Brigitte Helm: Heilige und Vamp', in Knut Hickethier (ed.), Grenzganger zwischen Theater und Kino: Schauspielerportrats aus dem Berlin der zwanziger Jahre, Asthetik und Kommunikation, Berlin, 1986.

Brehmer, Karin, 'Der Roman »Metropolis« von Thea von Harbou, Fritz Langs Stummfilm Metropolis und die Neubearbeitung von Giorgio Moroder', Mgisterarbeit der Philosophischen, Fakultät der Universität des Saarlandes. Neuere Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachrichtung Germanistik, Saarbrücken 1986.

Dadoun, Roger (translated by Arthur Goldhammer), 'Metropolis: Mother City - 'Mittler' - Hitler', Camera Obscura: A Journal of Feminism, Culture and Media Studies, 15, Fall 1986, 137-63. English translation of the 1984 article. Reproduced in Penley (1991).

Eisner, Lotte H. (translated by Gertrud Mander and edited by David Robinson), Fritz Lang, Da Capo Press, New York, 1986, 416p. [Kaplan 478]

'Mostra fotographica su Metropolis a Torino', Cineforum, XXVI(3), 252, March 1986, 2.

Ott, Frederick W., The Great German Films, Citadel Press, New Jersey, 1986, 73-81.

Patalas, Enno (a), 'A Metropolis tortenete 1926 - tol 1985-ig', Filmkultura, Budapest, XXII(3), March 1986, 45-8.

---- (b), 'Metropolis, Scene 103', Camera Obscura: A Journal of Feminism, Culture and Media Studies, 15, Fall 1986, 164-73. English translation by Miriam Hansen of the original article which appeared in Horst von Harbou (1985). Reproduced in Penley (1991).

Rondolino, Gianni, 'Metropolis' (Review), La Stampa, 12 August 1986.

Sorel, Edward, 'Fritz Lang and Dr. Joseph Goebbels', Graphis, 42, January/February 1986, 75.


Brentano, Bernhard von, 'Metropolis (Review, 1927), Wo in Europa ist Berlin? Bilder aus den zwanziger Jahren, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt, 1987, 25-8. Reprint of original 1927 review.

Fritz Lang, 2., erg. Aufl. C. Hanser, Munchen, 1987, 202p.

Kessler, Frank, 'Metropolis de Fritz Lang: esthétique ou esthétiques?', PhD thesis, Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle (Paris III) 1987.

Kreimeier, Klaus, 'Der Schlafwandler. Fritz Lang und seine deutschen Filme', in Uta Berg-Ganschow and Wolfgang Jacobsen (eds.), Film...Stadt...Kino...Berlin, Argon, Berlin, 1987, 89-109.

Lauwaert, Dirk, 'Restaurateur Enno Patalas over Langs Metropolis' (Interview), Film en Televisie, 357, February 1987, 32-3.

Metropolis: un film de Fritz Lang. Images d'un tournage, Le Centre, Paris, 1985, 143p. Series - Photo copies, 3e. Photographs by Horst von Harbou. Deutsche Ubersetzung der Texte, Separatdruck, Gewerbemuseum Basel, 1987. Exhibition catalogue. See under Horst von Harbou (1985).

Puekert, Detlev J.T., The Weimar Republic: The Crisis of Classical Modernity, Hill & Wang, New York, 1987, 334p. Translated by Richard Deveson.

Theweleit, Klaus, Male Fantasies I: Women, floods, bodies, history, [Translated by S. Conway], Polity Press, University of Minnesota, 1987, 518p. Originally published Germany 1977. See also Male Fantasies II: Male bodies - psychoanalyzing the white terror, Polity Press, University of Minnesota, 1989, 508p. Originally published Germany 1978.


Edwards, Gregory J., The Book of the International Film Poster, Tiger Books International, London, 1988, 34-5.

Eibel, Alfred, Trois Lumieres, Flammarion, Paris, 1988.

Freund, Rudolf, 'Metropolis', in: Günther Dahlke, Günter Karl (eds., Deutsche Spielfilme von den Anfängen bis 1933. Ein Filmführer, Henschelverlag, Berlin 1988, 143-145; new edition Henschel, Berlin, 1993.

Fritz Lang - Metropolis: Katalog Muchner Filmmuseum, FilmMuseum, Munich, 1988, 40p. Includes 37 photographs + 1 facsimile.

Harbou, Thea von, Metropolis, Donning, Norfolk, 1988, 170p. Leather bound limited edition, and paperback. Illustrated by Michael Kaluta.

Orosz, Susanne, 'Metropolis, Bild 103', in Der Stummfilm: Konstruktion und Rekonstruktion, Verlegergemeinschaft Schaudig / Bauer / Ledig, Munchen, 1988, 226p.

Patalas, Enno, 'Metropolis, Bild 103', in Elfriede Ledig, Diskurs film 2: Der Stummfilm, Konstruktion und Rekonstruktion, Verlegergemeinschaft Schaudig/Bauer/Ledig, Munich, 1988, 153-162.

Weihsmann, Helmut, Gebaute Illusionen: Architektur im Film, Promedia, Vienna, 1988, 171-77.


Anon., 'Metropolis Play - review', The Times, London, 9 March 1989.

Albrecht, Ronald, Architekur im Film: Die Moderne als große Illusion. Ergänzt um Bilder und text zum deutschen Film zwischen 1920 und 1933, Birkhäuser, Basel, 1989.

Bloom, Suzanne, and Hill, Ed, 'Dark Wonder [Fritz Lang's Metropolis and new technological wonders]', Artforum, 27, Summer 1989, 86-91.

Bo, Fabio & Pecchioli, M., 'Fuga da Metropolis. Nuove invasioni dal piccolo schermo', Filmcritica, XL(395), May 1989, 327-31.

Byers, Thomas B., 'Kissing Becky: Masculine Fears and Misogynist Moments in Science Fiction Films', Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory, 45(3), Autumn 1989, 77-95.

'City of Dreadful Night', Times, London, 9 March 1989, 20d. Review of the Metropolis play as performed in London.

Deppermann, Maria, '"Femme machine." Zum filmischen Code in Fritz Langs Metropolis', in J. Bernard, T. Klugsberger and G. Whitlan (eds.), Semiotik der Geschlechter, Akademischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1989, 157-68.

Drouot-Richelieu, Maitres Chayette et Calmels [Auction calatalogue], Paris, 8 December 1989.

Duff, Richard, Metropolis (Program book for the musical play Metropolis). Music by Joe Brooks. Book and lyrics by Dusty Hughes and Joe Brooks, Proscenium, London, 1989.

Harbou, Thea von, Metropolis, Xanadu, London, 1989, 224p.

Holland, Peter, 'Metropolis', Times Literary Supplement, 17 March 1989, 279. Review of Metropolis play.

Humphries, Reynold, Fritz Lang: genre and representation in his American films, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1989, 207p.

Hunte, Otto, 'Der Baumeister von Metropolis', in Walter Stock, Stadtmaschinen: Architekur im Film, Selbstverlag, Gerolzhofen, 1989, 41. Reprinted from Illustrierter Film-Kurier, 1927.

Jacobson, Wolfgang, Erich Pommer - ein Produzent macht Filmgeschichte, Argon, Berlin, 1989.

Jordanova, Ludmilla, 'Science, Machines and Gender', in Sexual Visions: Images of Gender in Science and Medicine between the Eighteenth and Twentieth Centuries, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1989, 111-33.

Lang, Fritz, Metropolis, Faber and Faber, London & Boston, 1989, 131p. Reissue of 1973 edition of the Metropolis film script.

Lynne, Stephen, 'Metropolis', Starlog, 147, October 1989, 58-61, 93.

'Metropolis', Times Literary Supplement, 17 March 1989, B45a. Review of Metropolis play.

Morley, Sheridan, 'Metropolis' (Review), Plays and Players, 427, May 1989, 24-5. Review of Metropolis play.

Peling, M., 'Fritz Lang: Un opéra d'images: Metropolis (1927)', Jeune Cinéma, 195, June-July 1989, 4-14.

Peters, John, 'Outdated Motor in the Heart of the Machine', Sunday Times, 12 March 1989, C9a. Review of Metropolis play.

----, 'Why I'm damned by fake praise', Sunday Times, 2 April 1989, C7a. Review of Metropolis play.

Savary, Jerome, 'Lighting up the City', The Times, London, 4 March 1989, B96.

Schober, Walter, 'Metropolis', in: Günter Engelhard, Horst Schäfer, W.Sch. (eds.), 111 Meisterwerke des Films. Das Video-Privatmuseum, Fischer, Frankfurt am Main, 1989, 81-84.

Sofia, Zoe, 'Masculine excess and the metaphorics of vision: some problems of feminist film theory', Continuum: The Australian Journal of Media and Culture, 2(2), 1989.

'Theatre: Back to the Future', Sunday Times Magazine, 26 February 1989, 5. Review of Metropolis play.

Wollen, Peter, 'Cinema / Americanism / The Robot', New Formations, 5, 1989, 7-35. See also Wollen (1991).

Antonelli, Paola, and Schneider, Romana, 'Metropolis in vitro', Domus, 717, June 1990, 74-80.

Busque, Alice-Anne, 'De Fritz Lang au nazisme', Bibliothéque Nationale du Canada, Ottawa, 1990, MA thesis, Université Laval, 1989, 174p.

Esser, M., '[Metropolis]', Filmbulletin, Winterhur, 5, 1990.

Gehler, Fred and Kasten, Ullrich, Fritz Lang, die Stimme von Metropolis, Henschel, Berlin, 1990, 291p.

Heinzlmeier, Adolf, Fritz Lang, Moewig, Rastatt, 1990, 80p.

Jurkiewicz, Kenneth, 'Using Film in the Humanities Classroom: The Case of Metropolis', English Journal, 79(3), March 1990, 47-50.

Keiner, Reinhold, Thea von Harbou und der deutsche Film, Olms, Hildesh., 1990, 306p.

Leper, Mark R., 'Metropolis' (Review), Lan's Lantern, 32, March 1990, 44-6.

Mikuz, Jure, Fritz Lang, Moderna Galerija: Revija Ekran, Ljubljana, 1990, 160p.

Murray, Bruce, Film and the German Left in the Weimar Republic : From Caligari to Kuhle Wampe, University of Texas, 1990, 293p.

Muth, Jon, Fritz Lang, Eclipse Books, 1990.

Bertetto, Paolo, Fritz Lang Metropolis, Lindau, Turin, 1990. Universale/Cinema 15. Second edition 1995.

Rodman, Howard A., Destiny Express, Atheneum, New York, 1990, 211p. Fictional account of Fritz Lang and Thea von Harbou's final months together in 1932-3, with some references to Metropolis.

Sesti, Mario, Fritz Lang. Comune di Roma, Assessorato alla cultura, Edizioni Carte segrete, Roma, 1990, 145p.

Sturm, Georges, Fritz Lang: films, textes, références, Presses Universitaires de Nancy, Nancy, 1990, 64-74.

Telotte, J.P., 'The Seductive text of Metropolis', South Atlantic Review, 55(4), 1990, 46-60. Reproduced in Telotte (1995).

Werner, Gosta, 'Fritz Lang and Goebbels: Myth and Facts', Film Quarterly, Berkeley, 43(3), Spring 1990, 24-7.


Cieutat, Brigitte 'Le symbolisme des figures géometriques dans Metropolis', Positif. Revue mensuelle de Cinéma, Paris, July-August 1991, 133-6.

Coates, Paul, The Gorgon's Gaze: German Cinema, Expressionism, and the Image of Horror, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1991, 41-52.

Desser, David, 'Race, Space and Class: The Politics of the SF Film from Metropolis to Blade Runner', in Judith B. Kerman (ed.), Retrofitting Blade Runner: Issues in Ridley Scott's Blade Runner and Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sleep?, Popular Press, Bowling Green, Ohio, 1991, 110-13.

Fritz Lang, Comune di Roma Assessorato alla Cultura, Edition Carte Segrete, Rome, 1990.

Hughes, Robert, 'Putting a Zeitgeist in a box - The 1920s: Age of the Metropolis', Time, 7 October 1991, 66-7.

Jacobson, Wolfgang, Karl Prümm and Benno Wenz, Willy Haas. Der Kritiker als Mitproduzent. Texte zum Film 1920-1933, Edition Hentrich, Berlin, 1991.

Lamonica, Barbara, Metropolis : level 5, Edcon, Long Island, NY, 1991, 72p.

Penley, Constance et al. (eds.), Close Encounters: Film, Feminism, and Science Fiction, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1991, 298p. Includes reproductions of Metropolis-related articles by Patalas (1986) and Dadoun (1986).

Springer, Claudia, 'The Pleasure of the Interface', Screen, 32(3), 1991, 303-23. Reprinted in P.D. Hopkins (ed.), Sex/Machine: Readings in Culture, Gender and technology, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1998, 510p.

Tobin, Yann et al., 'Le retour de Fritz Lang', Positif, 365-6, July-August 1991, 121-60.

Wollen, Peter, 'Cinema / Americanism / the Robot', in Naremore, J. and Brentlinger, P. (eds.), Modernity and Mass Culture, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1991.

Zagula, J.T., 'Saints, sinners, and society: images of women in film and drama, from Weimar to Hitler', Women's Studies, February 1991, 19(1), 55-77.


Carlson, J.F., 'From Metropolis to Never-Neverland: Analysing Fictional Characters in a Personality Theory Course', Teaching of Psychology, 19(3), October 1992, 153-5.

Clarke, I.F., 'The city: heaven-on-earth or the hell-to-come? (20th Century Future-think)', Futures, 24(7), September 1992, 701-10.

Etten, Manfred, 'Aber ich interessierte mich fur Maschinen.... 65 Jahre Metropolis: Ruckblick auf aiene Stadt der Zukunft', Film dienst, XLV(1), 7 January 1992, 38-40.

Hales, Barbara, 'Fritz Lang's Metropolis and Reactionary Modernism', New German Review: A Journal of Germanic Studies, 8, 1992, 18-30.

Hodnebo, Tone, 'Metropolis', Vagant, 1, 1992, 14-17.

Kaes, Anton, 'Modernity and Its Discontents: Notes on Alterity in Weimar Cinema', Qui-Parle, Berkeley, 5(2), Spring-Summer 1992, 135-42. Translated by David Levin.

Kreimeier, Klaus, Die Ufa-Story. Geschichte eines Filmkonzerns, Hanser, München, Wien, 1992, 183-190.

Lacayo, R., 'Future Schlock', Time, 140(27), Fall 1992, 90.

Schulze-Mittendorf, Walter, 'Begegenung mit Fritz Lang', in Wolfgang Jacobsen (ed.), Babelsberg. Ein Filmstudio, Argon, Berlin, 1992, 83-84.

Pablos García, Tamel de, 'Cine e historia contemporánea : análisis filosófico y técnico-lingüístico del film aleman Metrópolis (1926, dir. Fritz Lang)' [Film and History: Philosophical and Technicolinguistic Analysis of Fritz Lang's Metropolis], Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, PhD thesis, 1992, 795p.

Rabenalt, P., 'Nicht nur Metropolis .... Filmmusik live als neues altes Filmerlebnis?', Film und Fernsehen, XX(3), June 1992, 38-40.

Sanchez-Biosca, Vicente, Mas alla de la duda: el cine de Fritz Lang, Aula de Cinema, Servei d'Extensio Universitaria, Universitat de Valencia, 1992, 227p.

Schhonemann, Heide, Fritz Lang: Filmbilder, Vorbilder, Filmmuseum Potsdam / Edition Hentrich, Berlin, 1992, 117p.

Shikina, Akiyoshi, 'Schrift und Bild - Literarische Zukunftsentwurfe am Beispiel von Metropolis (Fritz Lang / Thea von Harbou)', in Kenichi Mishima and Hikaru Tsuji (eds.), Deutschlandstudien International 2: Dokumentation des Symposiums 'Interkulturelle Deutschstudien. Methoden, Moglichkeiten und Modelle' in Takayama, Japan, 1990, Iudicium, Munisch, 1992, 81-103.

Stock, Walter, Stadtmaschinen: Architektur im Film, Selbstverlag, Gerolzhofen, 1989.

Traubner, Richard, 'The Berlin Festival', Films in Review, 43(5-6), May-June 1992, 166-72.

Töteberg, Michael, '"… mit kühler Reserve behandeln!" Fritz Lang und die Ufa', in Rainer Rother (ed.), Die Ufa – Das deutsche Bildimperium. Ufa-Magazin Nr. 6: Metropolis, Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin, 1992.

----, 'Der Turmbau zu Babelsberg: Fritz Lang's Metropolis', in Hans-Michael Bock and Michael Töteberg (eds.), Das Ufa-Buch, Zweitausendeins, Frankfurt am Main, 1992, 182.


Bertetto, Paolo and Eisenschitz, Bernard, Fritz Lang: la messa in scena, Lindau, Torino, 1993, 511p.

----, Fritz Lang: la mise en scene, Lindau, Torino, 1993, 503p. Trad. de l'italien. Catalogue publie en italien a l'occasion de la manisfestation Fritz Lang du Museo Nazionale del Cinema de Turin, en mars 1993. "Cinémathèque française, Musée du Cinéma ; Museo nazionale del Cinema ; Filmoteca generalitat Valenciana".

Erlich, Richard D. and Dunn, Thomas P. (eds.), Clockworks: A Multimedia Bibliography of Works Useful for the Study of Human / Machine Interface in SF, Series: Bibliographies and Indexes in World Literature, Number 37, Greenwood Press, Westport, 1993,324p.

Geser, Guntrum, 'Innovation und Anachronismus: Fritz Lang und dis Kluft zwischen Filmtechnik und Stummfilmschauspiel gegen Ende der zwanziger Jahr', TZS, 35, 1993, 109-17.

Grafe, Frieda, 'Die Metropolis', in Paolo Bertetto and Bernard Eisenschitz (eds.), Fritz Lang. La messa in scena, Lindua, Torino, 1993, 119-124.

Hall, Hal W., Science Fiction and Fantasy Reference Index 1985-1991: An International Author and Subject Index to History and Criticism, Libraries Unlimited, Engelwood, 1993, 677p.

Kaes, Anton, 'Film in der Weimarer Republik', in Jacobsen, W., Kaes, A. and Prinzler, H.H. (eds.), Geschichte des deutschen Films, Metzler, Stuttgart, 1993.

----, 'Metropolis: City, Cinema, Modernity', in Timothy O. Benson (ed.), Expressionist Utopias, LACMA, Los Angeles, 1993, 146-165.

Lathers, M., 'L'Eve Future and the hypnotic feminine', The Romanic Review, January 1993, 84(1), 43-54.

Martin, C.D., 'The myth of the awesome thinking machine', Communications of the ACM, April 1993, 36(4), 120-33.

'Metropolis', Midnight Marquee, 45, 1993.

Morton, Melanie, 'Don't Go for Second Sex, Baby!', in Cathy Schwichtenberg (ed.), The Madonna Connection, Westview Press, Colorado, 1993, 216.

Rutsky, R.L., 'The Mediation of Technology and Gender: Metropolis, Nazism, Modernism', New German Critique: An Interdisciplinary Journal of German Studies, 60, Fall 1993, 3-32.


Biro, Matthew, 'The New Man as Cyborg: Figures of Technology in Weimar Visual Culture', New German Critique: An Interdisciplinary Journal of German Studies, 62, Spring-Summer 1994, 71-110.

Herzog, Peter & Vazzana, Gene, Brigitte Helm: From Metropolis to Gold. Portrait of a Goddess, Corvin, New York, 1994.

Kaes, Anton, 'Cinema and Modernity: On Fritz Lang's Metropolis', in Reinhold Grimm and Jost Hermand (eds.), High and Low Cultures: German Attempts at Mediation, University of Wisconsin, 1994, 19-35.

Kaes, Anton, Jay, Martin, and Dimendberg, Edward (eds.), 'Cinema from Expressionism to Social Realism', in The Weimar Republic Sourcebook, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1994, 617-35.

Lind, M., 'Things to come - movies provide glimpse of direction of world politics', The National Interest, Summer 1994, 36, 110-2.

Mahoney, Dennis F., 'From Caligari to Strangelove: The German as (Mad) Scientist in Film and Literature', in Marianne Henn and Christoph Lorey (eds.), Analogon Rationis, Edmonton, 1994, 419-32.

Neumann, Dietrich, 'The Urbanistic Vision in Fritz Lang's Metropolis', in Thomas W. Kniesche and Stephen Brockmann (eds.), Dancing on the Volcano: Essays on the Culture of the Weimar Republic, Camden House, Columbia, 1994, 143-62.

Quaresima, Leonardo and Jarque, Vincente, 'Ninon, la hermana de Maria: Metropolis y sus variantes', Archivos de la Filmoteca: Revista de Estudios Historicos sobre la Imagen, 17, June 1994, 5-37.

Thomsen, Christian W., 'Mediarchitecture: stages in the evolution I. From panorama and diorama to Le Corbusier's Philips Pavilion at Expo '58', A + U: Architecture and Urbanism, 282, March 1994, 94-111.

Traum und Wirklichkeit: Geschichte des deutschen Films, Teil 2 : Von Doktor Caligari zu Doktor Faust. Teil 3: Die klassischen Stummfilme von Fritz Lang, Deutsche Welle TV, Berlin, 1994, 1 videocassette (60 min) : sd. ; b/w ; 1/2 in. VHS NTSC.

Vana, Gerhard, 'Modell und Mimesis: Zum Problem der Dimension in der Architekur am Beispiel von Fritz Langs Metropolis', PhD. thesis, Technischen Universität, Vienna, 1994.


Anon., 'The Babelsberg Studios', UNESCO Courier, July-August 1995, 80-1.

Antonova, Irina and Merkert, Jörn, Berlin-Moscou 1900-1950, Prestel-Verlag, München, 1995, 310. Catalogue for exhibition held at Berlinishe Galerie, Berlin, 1995.

Baudin, Brigitte, 'Fritz Lang comme neuf. Enno Patalas et Galeshka Moravioff ont rendu au chef-d'œuvre de Fritz Lang sa forme presque originelle', Le Figaro, 23 February 1995.

Bertellini, Giorgio, 'Restoration, genealogy and palimpsets. On some historiographical questions', Film History, 7, 1995, 277-90.

Bruns, Karin, 'Figuren des Weibichlen - Szenarien des Nationalen: Die (Drehbuch) Autorin Thea von Harbou 1884-1954', in Hannelore Scholz and Brita Baume (eds.), Der weibliche multikulturelle Blick: Ergebnisse eines Symposiums, Berlin, 1995, 95-104.

----, Kinomythen 1920-1925. Die Filmentwürfe der Thea von Harbou, Metzler, Stuttgart, 1995.

Carli, P.C., 'Musicology and the presentation of silent film', Film History, 7, 1995, 298-321.

Diethe, Carol, 'Beauty and the Beast: An investigation into the role and function of women in German expressionist film', in Marsha Meskimmon and Shearer West (eds.), Visions of the 'Neue Frau': Women and the visual Arts in Weimar Germany, Scolar Press, Aldershot, 1995, 108-23.

Fulton, Elizabeth J., 'Manmade Women: Technology, Femininity, and the Cinema', MA, University of Alberta, 1995. Includes a discussion of Fritz Lang's Metropolis.

Genin, Bernard, 'Metropolis' (Review), Telerama, 2354, 22 February 1995, 27.

Kiefer, Bernd, 'Metropolis', in Thomas Koebner (ed.), Filmklassiker, Bd. 1, 1913-1946, Reclam, Stuttgart, 1995, 152-156.

Neumann, Dietrich, 'Die Bauten von Metropolis', in Wolfgang Jacobsen, Hans Helmut Prinzler, Werner Sudendorf (eds.), Kino* Movie* Cinéma, Argon, Berlin, 1995, 28-34.

Peucker, Brigitte, Incorporating Images: Film and the Rival Arts, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995, 227p.

Sawyer, Andy, 'More than Metaphor: Double Vision in Lang's Metropolis', Foundation: The Review of Science Fiction, 64, Summer 1995, 70-81.

Schneider, R., 'Au-delà de l'expressionisme: la vision architecturale de Fritz Lang', CinémAction, 75, April 1995, 25-33.

Socci, Stefano, Fritz Lang, Il Castoro, Roma, 1995, 176p.

Sussman, V., 'Who is the bad guy?', U.S. News and World Report, 119(2), 25 September 1995, 76-7. Brief article on the portrayal of computers and machines as evil.

Telotte, J.R., 'The Seductive Text of Metropolis', in Replications: A Robotic History of the Science Fiction Film, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1995.


Brasher, Brenda, 'Thoughts on the Status of the Cyborg: On Technological Socialization and its Link to the religious Function of Popular Culture', Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Winter, 1996.

Gerz, Raimund, 'Ausstellung 'Filmarchitektur - Set Designs von Metropolis bis Blade Runner' in Frankfurt', EPD Film, XIII(8), August 1996, 5-7. Exhibition review.

Geser, Guntram, Fritz Lang: Metropolis und Die Frau im Mond. Zukunftsfilm und Zukunftstechnik in der Stabilisierungszeit der Weimarer Republik, Corian-Verlag H. Wimmer, Meitingen, 1996, 183p.

Haberman, Mary S., 'Pictures of their time: cinema and popular culture in Weimar Germany: the films of Fritz Lang, 1919-1933', MA thesis, Western Washington University, 1996, 165p.

Lofficier, R.J.M., Thomas, Roy and McKeever, Ted, Superman's Metropolis, DC Comics, New York, 1996, 63p. Comic book version of Metropolis featuring Superman and Lois Lane in the roles of Freder and Maria.

Lungstrum, Janet, 'Metropolis and the Technosexual Woman of German Modernity', in Katharina von Ankrum (ed.), Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture, University of California, Berkeley, 1996, 128-44.

Makela, Maria, 'The Misogynist Machine: Images of Technology in the Work of Hannah Höch', in Ankum, K.v. (ed.), Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1996, 106-27.

Mehlem, Axel, Der Science Fiction-Film. Ursprünge, Geschichte, Technik, Aufsätze zu Film und Fernsehen, Bd. 24., Coppi, Alfred, 1996, 44-45, 140, 146.

Mesnil, Michel, Fritz Lang: le jugement, Editions Michalon, Paris, 1996, 124p. Series - Collection Le bien commun, 1269-8563. ISBN: 2841860426.

Nagel, Josef, 'Metropolis und Die Frau im Mond' [Book review], Film Dienst, 40(17), 13 August 1996, 31.

Neumann, Dietrich, 'Vorboten und Folgen von Metropolis: Film und Architektur auf der Suche nach der modernen Stadt', Filmarchitektur. Von Metropolis bis Blade Runner, Prestel, München, 1996, 33-38, 94-103.

Norwell-Smith, Geoffrey, The Oxford History of World Cinema, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996, 824p.

Pinel, Vincent, Berthomé, Jean-Pierre & Bastide, Bernard, 'La restauration des films', Positif, 421, March 1996, 88-109.

Telotte, J.P., 'Just Imagine-ing the Metropolis of Modern America. Cultural effects of technology', Science Fiction Studies, 23(2), July 1996, 161-70.


'20 Most Influential Films of All Time', Cinescape, 3(4), January-February 1997. Metropolis was listed at number 4.

Dean, Peter, 'Metropolis' (Review), Sight and Sound, 7(4), April 1997, 62.

Dolgenos, Peter, 'The Star on C.A. Rotwang's Door: Turning Kracauer on its head', Journal of Popular Film and Television, 25, Summer 1997, 68-75.

Jelinek, Elfriede, 'Ritterin des gefährlichen Platzes', Meteor, 11, December 1997. deals with Aliens and Metropolis.

Kac, E., 'Foundation and development of robotic art', Art Journal, Fall 1997, 56(3), 60-7.

Lambert, Elizabeth, 'Mrs. Dalloway Meet the Robot Maria', in Diane F. Gillespie (ed.), Virginia Woolf and the Arts: Selected Papers from the Sixth Annual Conference on Virginia Woolf, Clemson University, 13-16 June 1996, Pace University Press, New York, 1997, 277-82.

Lungstrum, Janet, 'Metropolis and the Technosexual Woman of German Modernity', in Katharina von Ankum (ed.), Women in the Metropolis. Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture, University California Press, Berkeley, 1997, 128-144.

McGilligan, Patrick, Fritz Lang: The Nature of the Beast, St Martin's Press, New York, 1997, 548p.

Neumann, Dietrich (ed.), Film Architecture: Set Design from Metropolis to Blade Runner, Prestel, Munich and New York, 1997, 207p.

Urgosikova, B., 'Metropolis', in N.V. Elert, A. Vasudevan and L. Shrimpton (eds.), International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers. 1. Films, 3rd ed., St. James Press, Detroit, 1997, 644-6.

Zimnik, Nina, 'The Formation of Feminine Fascist Subjectivity: Thea von Harbou and Leni Riefenstahl', Thesis, State University of New York, 1997.


Crang, M., Cultural Geography, Routledge, London, 1998, 215p.

Dixon, Wheeler Winston, 'Thea von Harbou - German writer', in Amy L. Unterburger (ed.), Women Filmmakers and Their Films, St. James Press, Detriot, 1998, 439-41.

Eisenstein und Deutschland. Texte, Dokumente, Briefe, Akademie der Künste Berlin, Henschel, Berlin, 1998, 14-15.

Hahn, Ronald M., and Volker Jansen, Kultfilme. Von Metropolis bis Fargo, Heyne, München, 1998 (Heyne Film-Bibliothek Nr. 73), 392-398.

Klawans, S., Film Follies: The Cinema Out of Order, Cassell, 1998.

Mänz, Peter, 'Filmarchitektur und Kostüme: Metropolis, Zu Neuen Ufern, Das Kalte Herz Cabaret', Stiftung Deutsche Kinemathek Museumspädagogischer Dienst Berlin, Hrsg., 1998.

Page, N., Auden and Isherwood; The Berlin Years, St. Martin's Press, 1998, 232p.

Roper, Katherine, 'Looking for the German revolution in Weimar films', Central European History, 31, Winter-Spring 1998, 65-81.

Walker, J., 'City jungles and expressionist reifications from Brecht to Hammett', Twentieth Century Literature, Spring 1998, 44(1), 119-34.


Arnold, Frank, 'Von Metropolis nach Hollywood. Die Stadt im Science Fiction-Film - ein Streifzug', in Irmbert Schenk (ed.), Dschungel Großstadt: Kino und Modernisierung, Schüren, Marburg, 1999. Bremer Symposien zum Film III.

Elsaesser, Thomas, 'Endlosschleife Metropolis', in Irmbert Schenk (ed.), Dschungel Großstadt: Kino und Modernisierung, Schüren, Marburg, 1999. Bremer Symposien zum Film III.

Frost, Laura, 'Circuits of Desire. Sexy Robots and Techno Fetishism', ArtByte, New York, 6, February-March 1999.

Holt, Welsey G., 'State-of-the-Art Laserdiscs and DVDs Under Scrutiny - Metropolis', FilmFax - The Magazine of Unusual Film and Television, 71, February-March 1999, 28-36. Available online at

Hughes, Robert, 'Star Wars - The Phantom Menace' (Review), The Weekend Australian, Sydney, 22 May 1999. Quote: 'The Phantom Menace is one of the worst movies I have ever seen .... The best thing about [the film] is its design, by Doug Chiang and David Bouquet: one scene in the Galatic Senate is visually stunning. But, even in this area, you know Lucas and his team are too heavily dependent on earlier imagery - it's just that they've been able to gussy it up with special effects that didn't exist 75 years ago. The planet-sized city of Naboo, with its traffic streams of spacecraft criss-crossing the lurid sky above the skyscrapers, comes, in every detail, straight from Fritz Lang's Metropolis and Alexander Korda's The Shape of Things to Come....'

Nardi, B.A. and O'Day, V.L., Information Ecologies: Using Technology with Heart, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1999, 232p. Includes 11 b/w illustrations from Metropolis, plus chapter 'Rotwang the Inventor' (pp.3-12).

Patalas, Enno, 'Metropolis - Die Zukunftsstadt - ein Trümmerfilm. Aus der Arbeit des Münchner Filmmuseums', in Irmbert Schenk (ed.), Dschungel Großstadt: Kino und Modernisierung, Schüren, Marburg, 1999. Bremer Symposien zum Film III.

Rutsky, R.L., High Techne: Art and Technology from the Machine Age to the Posthuman, University of Minnesota Press, 1999, 192p.

Schwartzman, Roy, 'Engendered Machines in Science Fiction Films', Studies in Popular Culture, 22(1), 1999.

Turner, George, 'Best-shot films: 1894-1949 - Metropolis', American Cinematographer, 80(3), March 1999, 106. Metropolis was placed 4th on the list of the 10 best shot films for this period.


Galloway, Doug, 'Curt Siodmak' [Obituary], Variety, New York, 18-24 Septemmber 2000, 122. Makes reference to his involvement with Metropolis and work on a sequel.

Jacobsen, Wolfgang and Sudendorf, Werner, Metropolis - Ein filmisches Laboratorium der modern Architekur / A Cinematic Laboratory for Modern Architecture, Edition Axel Menges, Stutgart, 2000, 240p. German / English, with 191 illustrations.

Jenkins, Henry, 'Art Form for the Digital Age - Video games shape pur culture. it's time we took them seriously', Technology Review, September/October 2000, 117-127. Quote: "The art of silent cinema was also an art of atmospheric design. To watch a silent masterpiece like Fritz Lang's Metropolis is to be drawn into a world where meaning is carried by the placement of shadows, the movement of machinery and the organisation of space. If anything, game designers have pushed beyond cinema in terms of developing expressive and fantastic environments that convey a powerful sense of mood, provoke our curiosity and amusement, and motivate us to explore."

Minden, Michael and Bachman, Holger (eds.), Fritz Lang's Metropolis: Cinematic Visions of Technology and Fear, Camden House, London, 2000, 326p.

Pedraza, P., Fritz Lang. Metrópolis / Metropolis, Paidos, Spain, 2000, 142p.

The World of Movie Posters, Sotheby's, New York, Sale 7530, 28 October, 2000. Includes sale of an original 1927 Metropolis poster - illustrated on cover.

Zebrowski, G., 'Silver Screen - The Great and the Beloved Worst [2001, Metropolis & Things to Come]', Amazing Stories, 71(5), No.600, February 2000, 80-86.


Patalas, Enno, Metropolis in/aus Trümmern. Eine Filmgeschichte [Metropolis - From Ruins. A Film History], Bertz Verlag, Berlin, 2001, 176p.

Last updated: 28 January 2011.

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